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      Characterization of MaltOBP1, a Minus-C Odorant-Binding Protein, From the Japanese Pine Sawyer Beetle, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

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          Abstract

          Insect Odorant-Binding Proteins (OBPs) play crucial roles in the discrimination, binding and transportation of odorants. Herein, the full-length cDNA sequence of Minus-C OBP1 (MaltOBP1) from the Japanese pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus, was cloned by 3′ and 5′ RACE-PCR and analyzed. The results showed that MaltOBP1 contains a 435 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes 144 amino acids, including a 21-amino acid signal peptide at the N-terminus. The matured MaltOBP1 protein possesses a predicted molecular weight of about 14 kDa and consists of six α-helices, creating an open binding pocket, and two disulfide bridges. Immunoblotting results showed that MaltOBP1 was most highly expressed in antennae in both sexes, followed by wings and legs. Fluorescence assays demonstrated that MaltOBP1 protein exhibited high binding affinity with (R)-(+)-α-pinene, (−)-β-pinene, trans-caryophyllene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (–)-verbenone, which are the main volatile compounds of the pine tree. Our combined results suggest that MaltOBP1 plays a role in host seeking behavior in M. alternatus.

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          Electroblotting of multiple gels: a simple apparatus without buffer tank for rapid transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide to nitrocellulose.

          A simple, horizontal device for rapid electrophoretic transfer of proteins from several polyacrylamide gels simultaneously is described. Up to six 'TRANS-UNITS' consisting of soaked filter paper on either side of polyacrylamide gel/nitrocellulose sheets that are separated by dialysis membranes are stacked between graphite plate electrodes. The only buffer reservoir in the apparatus is that in stacked, soaked filter paper. A special buffer system based on the isotachophoresis theory was developed for this purpose. The electrophoretic transfer was performed with equal efficiency in all TRANS-UNITS of the stack. Only traces of a few proteins remained in the polyacrylamide gel after transfer. With this apparatus, 50 protein bands from a human serum protein sample (diluted 1 : 100) were detected by immunoblotting with the retainment of the high resolution of the SDS-PAGE technique. The apparatus provided a constant current density of 0.8 mA/cm2 during the 1-h transfer time at 21 degrees C, irrespective of the number of TRANS-UNITS. The apparatus generated 1-5 W in joule heat, depending on the number of TRANS-UNITS in the stack.
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            Beyond chemoreception: diverse tasks of soluble olfactory proteins in insects.

            Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are regarded as carriers of pheromones and odorants in insect chemoreception. These proteins are typically located in antennae, mouth organs and other chemosensory structures; however, members of both classes of proteins have been detected recently in other parts of the body and various functions have been proposed. The best studied of these non-sensory tasks is performed in pheromone glands, where OBPs and CSPs solubilise hydrophobic semiochemicals and assist their controlled release into the environment. In some cases the same proteins are expressed in antennae and pheromone glands, thus performing a dual role in receiving and broadcasting the same chemical message. Several reports have described OBPs and CSPs in reproductive organs. Some of these proteins are male specific and are transferred to females during mating. They likely carry semiochemicals with different proposed roles, from inhibiting other males from approaching mated females, to marking fertilized eggs, but further experimental evidence is still needed. Before being discovered in insects, the presence of binding proteins in pheromone glands and reproductive organs was widely reported in mammals, where vertebrate OBPs, structurally different from OBPs of insects and belonging to the lipocalin superfamily, are abundant in rodent urine, pig saliva and vaginal discharge of the hamster, as well as in the seminal fluid of rabbits. In at least four cases CSPs have been reported to promote development and regeneration: in embryo maturation in the honeybee, limb regeneration in the cockroach, ecdysis in larvae of fire ants and in promoting phase shift in locusts. Both OBPs and CSPs are also important in nutrition as solubilisers of lipids and other essential components of the diet. Particularly interesting is the affinity for carotenoids of CSPs abundantly secreted in the proboscis of moths and butterflies and the occurrence of the same (or very similar CSPs) in the eyes of the same insects. A role as a carrier of visual pigments for these proteins in insects parallels that of retinol-binding protein in vertebrates, a lipocalin structurally related to OBPs of vertebrates. Other functions of OBPs and CSPs include anti-inflammatory action in haematophagous insects, resistance to insecticides and eggshell formation. Such multiplicity of roles and the high success of both classes of proteins in being adapted to different situations is likely related to their stable scaffolding determining excellent stability to temperature, proteolysis and denaturing agents. The wide versatility of both OBPs and CSPs in nature has suggested several different uses for these proteins in biotechnological applications, from biosensors for odours to scavengers for pollutants and controlled releasers of chemicals in the environment.
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              Soluble proteins of chemical communication: an overview across arthropods

              Detection of chemical signals both in insects and in vertebrates is mediated by soluble proteins, highly concentrated in olfactory organs, which bind semiochemicals and activate, with still largely unknown mechanisms, specific chemoreceptors. The same proteins are often found in structures where pheromones are synthesized and released, where they likely perform a second role in solubilizing and delivering chemical messengers in the environment. A single class of soluble polypeptides, called Odorant-Binding Proteins (OBPs) is known in vertebrates, while two have been identified in insects, OBPs and CSPs (Chemosensory Proteins). Despite their common name, OBPs of vertebrates bear no structural similarity with those of insects. We observed that in arthropods OBPs are strictly limited to insects, while a few members of the CSP family have been found in crustacean and other arthropods, where however, based on their very limited numbers, a function in chemical communication seems unlikely. The question we address in this review is whether another class of soluble proteins may have been adopted by other arthropods to perform the role of OBPs and CSPs in insects. We propose that lipid-transporter proteins of the Niemann-Pick type C2 family could represent likely candidates and report the results of an analysis of their sequences in representative species of different arthropods.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-042X
                01 April 2020
                2020
                : 11
                : 212
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Henan Provincial South Henan Crop Pest Green Prevention and Control Academician Workstation, Xinyang Agriculture and Forestry University , Xinyang, China
                [2] 2State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Beijing, China
                [3] 3Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky , Lexington, KY, United States
                [4] 4Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University , Chongqing, China
                [5] 5Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University , Beijing, China
                [6] 6The Key Laboratory of Forest Protection, State Forestry Administration of China, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Peng He, Guizhou University, China

                Reviewed by: Wenwu Zhou, Zhejiang University, China; Herbert Venthur, University of La Frontera, Chile

                *Correspondence: Xuguo Zhou, xuguozhou@ 123456uky.edu

                This article was submitted to Invertebrate Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Article
                10.3389/fphys.2020.00212
                7138900
                32296339
                b85a55ab-7634-49c7-87df-e94aea991670
                Copyright © 2020 Zhang, Merchant, Zhao, Zhang, Zhang, Zhang, Wang, Zhou and Li.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 12 November 2019
                : 24 February 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 64, Pages: 10, Words: 0
                Funding
                Funded by: Special Fund for Forest Scientific Research in the Public Welfare 10.13039/501100010015
                Categories
                Physiology
                Original Research

                Anatomy & Physiology
                monochamus alternatus,olfactory,odorant binding protein,fluorescence binding assay,plant volatile

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