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      Management of adrenal incidentalomas: European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline in collaboration with the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors.

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          Abstract

          : By definition, an adrenal incidentaloma is an asymptomatic adrenal mass detected on imaging not performed for suspected adrenal disease. In most cases, adrenal incidentalomas are nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenomas, but may also represent conditions requiring therapeutic intervention (e.g. adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, hormone-producing adenoma or metastasis). The purpose of this guideline is to provide clinicians with best possible evidence-based recommendations for clinical management of patients with adrenal incidentalomas based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. We predefined four main clinical questions crucial for the management of adrenal incidentaloma patients, addressing these four with systematic literature searches: (A) How to assess risk of malignancy?; (B) How to define and manage low-level autonomous cortisol secretion, formerly called 'subclinical' Cushing's syndrome?; (C) Who should have surgical treatment and how should it be performed?; (D) What follow-up is indicated if the adrenal incidentaloma is not surgically removed? SELECTED RECOMMENDATIONS: (i) At the time of initial detection of an adrenal mass establishing whether the mass is benign or malignant is an important aim to avoid cumbersome and expensive follow-up imaging in those with benign disease. (ii) To exclude cortisol excess, a 1mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test should be performed (applying a cut-off value of serum cortisol ≤50nmol/L (1.8µg/dL)). (iii) For patients without clinical signs of overt Cushing's syndrome but serum cortisol levels post 1mg dexamethasone >138nmol/L (>5µg/dL), we propose the term 'autonomous cortisol secretion'. (iv) All patients with '(possible) autonomous cortisol' secretion should be screened for hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, to ensure these are appropriately treated. (v) Surgical treatment should be considered in an individualized approach in patients with 'autonomous cortisol secretion' who also have comorbidities that are potentially related to cortisol excess. (vi) In principle, the appropriateness of surgical intervention should be guided by the likelihood of malignancy, the presence and degree of hormone excess, age, general health and patient preference. (vii) Surgery is not usually indicated in patients with an asymptomatic, nonfunctioning unilateral adrenal mass and obvious benign features on imaging studies. We provide guidance on which surgical approach should be considered for adrenal masses with radiological findings suspicious of malignancy. Furthermore, we offer recommendations for the follow-up of patients with adrenal incidentaloma who do not undergo adrenal surgery, for those with bilateral incidentalomas, for patients with extra-adrenal malignancy and adrenal masses and for young and elderly patients with adrenal incidentalomas.

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          Most cited references194

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          Treatment of Cushing's Syndrome: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.

          The objective is to formulate clinical practice guidelines for treating Cushing's syndrome.
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            Adrenocortical carcinoma.

            Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC.
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              Case detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with primary aldosteronism: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline.

              Our objective was to develop clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary aldosteronism. The Task Force comprised a chair, selected by the Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS) of The Endocrine Society, six additional experts, one methodologist, and a medical writer. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration. Systematic reviews of available evidence were used to formulate the key treatment and prevention recommendations. We used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) group criteria to describe both the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations. We used "recommend" for strong recommendations and "suggest" for weak recommendations. Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions during one group meeting, several conference calls, and multiple e-mail communications. The drafts prepared by the task force with the help of a medical writer were reviewed successively by The Endocrine Society's CGS, Clinical Affairs Core Committee (CACC), and Council. The version approved by the CGS and CACC was placed on The Endocrine Society's Web site for comments by members. At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes. We recommend case detection of primary aldosteronism be sought in higher risk groups of hypertensive patients and those with hypokalemia by determining the aldosterone-renin ratio under standard conditions and that the condition be confirmed/excluded by one of four commonly used confirmatory tests. We recommend that all patients with primary aldosteronism undergo adrenal computed tomography as the initial study in subtype testing and to exclude adrenocortical carcinoma. We recommend the presence of a unilateral form of primary aldosteronism should be established/excluded by bilateral adrenal venous sampling by an experienced radiologist and, where present, optimally treated by laparoscopic adrenalectomy. We recommend that patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, or those unsuitable for surgery, optimally be treated medically by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur. J. Endocrinol.
                European journal of endocrinology
                1479-683X
                0804-4643
                Aug 2016
                : 175
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Internal Medicine IDivision of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany Comprehensive Cancer Center MainfrankenUniversity of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany fassnacht_m@ukw.de.
                [2 ] Institute of Metabolism & Systems ResearchUniversity of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Centre for EndocrinologyDiabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK.
                [3 ] Institute of Metabolism & Systems ResearchUniversity of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Centre for EndocrinologyDiabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK Division of EndocrinologyMetabolism, Nutrition and Diabetes, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
                [4 ] Department of GeneralVisceral, and Vascular Surgery, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
                [5 ] Department of Oncology and MetabolismMedical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Endocrine UnitRoyal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK.
                [6 ] Department of ImagingSt Bartholomew's Hospital, Barts Health, London, UK.
                [7 ] Department of Endocrinology and INSERM U862University and CHU of Bordeaux, Pessac, France.
                [8 ] Internal Medicine 1Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
                [9 ] Department of EndocrinologyDiabetes and Metabolism, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece.
                [10 ] Departments of Clinical Epidemiology and Internal MedicineLeiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands Department of Clinical EpidemiologyAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
                Article
                175/2/G1
                10.1530/EJE-16-0467
                27390021
                b867e4dc-59ce-4d11-a4b0-e2194378bb80
                © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.
                History

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