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      Partitioning diversity in subterranean invertebrates: The epikarst fauna of Slovenia

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          Abstract

          The decomposition of diversity into within site (α) and between site (β) components is especially interesting in subterranean communities because of their isolated nature and limited dispersal potential The aquatic epikarst fauna, sampled from water drips in caves affords a unique opportunity to provide comparable, quantitative samples of a portion of the obligate subterranean dwelling fauna in multiple hierarchical levels. We focused on three interrelated questions—(1) what is the spatial pattern of epikarst species diversity; (2) how does species diversity partition between local, and regional components (nested and replacement); and (3) whether epikarst hotspots are subterranean hotspots in general. We analyzed the geographic pattern of species richness of 30 species of obligate subterranean copepods found in 81 drips in Slovenian caves in three karst regions—Alpine, Dinaric, and Isolated. Comparison of Chao1 and observed (Mao-tau) estimates of species richness indicated sampling in most drips was complete, but species accumulation curves indicated roughly half of the sites in the Dinaric karst had not reached an asymptote. Overall, within drip diversity accounted for three species, different drips in a cave another three, different caves in a region six species, and different regions accounted for the remaining 18 species. Sites in the Dinaric karst had much higher species richness than the other sites, which is in agreement with studies of other components of the subterranean fauna. The fauna associated with drips in Županova jama (jama = cave), in the east-central Dinaric karst was the richest found. While turnover explained the majority of β-diversity, nestedness in the form of hotspot drips was important as well. A consequence is that a small number of drips largely determine cave and regional species diversity.

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          PATTERNS OF SPECIES DIVERSITY

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            IMPROVING PRECISION AND REDUCING BIAS IN BIOLOGICAL SURVEYS: ESTIMATING FALSE-NEGATIVE ERROR RATES

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              The relationship between species replacement, dissimilarity derived from nestedness, and nestedness

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Data curationRole: Investigation
                Role: Data curationRole: Investigation
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                2 May 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Karst Research Institute of the Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Postojna, Slovenia
                [2 ] Karstology Study Program, University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica, Slovenia
                [3 ] Department of Environmental Science, American University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America
                Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, BRAZIL
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                ‡ TP and DCC are joint senior authors. FP and PK also contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-11306
                10.1371/journal.pone.0195991
                5931492
                29718938
                © 2018 Pipan et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 6, Pages: 19
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Javna Agencija za Raziskovalno Dejavnost RS (SI)
                Award ID: P6-0119
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Slovenian Research Agency
                Award ID: BI-US/15-16-077
                Award Recipient :
                The research was supported by grants from the Slovenian Research Agency to Tanja Pipan (P6-0119 and BI-US/15-16-077). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                Earth Sciences
                Geomorphology
                Topography
                Karst Features
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Crustaceans
                Copepods
                Earth Sciences
                Geomorphology
                Topography
                Landforms
                Caves
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                Europe
                European Union
                Slovenia
                People and Places
                Population Groupings
                Ethnicities
                European People
                Slavic People
                Slovenian People
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Animal Types
                Aquatic Animals
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animal Types
                Aquatic Animals
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized

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