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      Safe Use of Flammable Endotracheal Tubes During Anesthesia for Laryngeal Laser Surgery-Report of 1024 Cases and a Brief Literature Review

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          Abstract

          Introduction:

          One of the major concerns in laryngeal laser surgery is the risk of airway fire. The introduction ofwrapped tubes and metal tubes has reduced the fire hazards. However, these tubes are expensive and do not provide convenient access to the surgical field. There are few laboratory studies addressing the resistance of polyvinylchloride tubes against ignition in the given circumstances. Nevertheless, its safety should be approved in clinical practices.

          Materials and Methods:

          This retrospective studyevaluated the airway management on 1024 patients undergoing laryngeal laser surgery. The data collection included the information about the type of endotracheal tube (ETT), mode of ventilation, and airway hazards (e.g., tube ignition).

          Results:

          Polyvinylchloride tubes and conventional positive pressure ventilation was applied for most of the patients (84.1%). The tube cuff was pierced with laser beam in 22 cases (2.5%). However, there was no case of ETT ignition or airway fire.

          Conclusion:

          Polyvinylchloride tubes can be safely used in this subset of surgeries pending meticulous attention to the safety recommendations.

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          Most cited references12

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          Endotracheal tubes: old and new.

          The development and evolution of the endotracheal tube (ETT) have been closely related to advances in surgery and anesthesia. Modifications were made to accomplish many tasks, including minimizing gross aspiration, isolating a lung, providing a clear facial surgical field during general anesthesia, monitoring laryngeal nerve damage during surgery, preventing airway fires during laser surgery, and administering medications. In critical care management, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major concern, as it is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. It is increasingly appreciated that the ETT itself is a primary causative risk for developing VAP. Unfortunately, contaminated oral and gastric secretions leak down past the inflated ETT cuff into the lung. Bacteria can also grow within the ETT in biofilm and re-enter the lung. Modifications to the ETT that attempt to prevent bacteria from entering around the ETT include maintaining an adequate cuff pressure against the tracheal wall, changing the material and shape of the cuff, and aspirating the secretions that sit above the cuff. Attempts to reduce bacterial entry through the tube include antimicrobial coating of the ETT and mechanically scraping the biofilm from within the ETT. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of these modifications and techniques demonstrate mixed results, and clear recommendations for which modification should be implemented are weak.
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            Use of lasers in laryngeal surgery.

            Lasers are a relatively recent addition to laryngeal surgery. Since their invention, laser use and applications have expanded rapidly. In this article, we discuss the benefits and disadvantages of lasers for different procedures, as well as ways to overcome commonly faced clinical problems. The use of lasers in surgery has offered a time- and cost-efficient alternative to cold surgical techniques, and has been used in the treatment of numerous laryngeal pathologies, including stenoses, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, leukoplakia, nodules, malignant laryngeal disease, and polypoid degeneration (Reinke's edema). However, lasers can incur adjacent tissue damage and vocal fold scarring. These problems can be minimized through understanding the mechanisms by which lasers function and correctly manipulating the parameters under a surgeon's control. By varying fluence, power density, and pulsation, tissue damage can be decreased and lasers can be used with greater confidence. The various types of lasers and their applications to the treatment of specific pathologies are reviewed with the intention of helping surgeons select the best tool for a given procedure. Recent applications of lasers to treat benign laryngeal lesions and severe laryngomalacia demonstrate that additional research must be conducted to realize the full potential of this surgical tool. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              PROTECTION OF THE HUMAN EYE FROM LASER RADIATION.

              H STRAUB (1965)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Iran J Otorhinolaryngol
                Iran J Otorhinolaryngol
                IJO
                Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
                Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran )
                2251-7251
                2251-726X
                July 2019
                : 31
                : 105
                : 225-227
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Anesthesiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
                [2 ] Department of Otolaryngology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding Author: Department of Anesthesiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel: + 98(0)21-64352326 , E-mail: Masood.mohseni@gmail.com
                Article
                iijo-31-225
                6666936
                31384588
                b87f2d36-e760-4292-a725-a33dcc769fef

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 17 August 2018
                : 12 March 2018
                Categories
                Original Article

                anesthesia,airway management,surgery,endotracheal,equipment safety,laser therapy.

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