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      Pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography findings in nephropathia epidemica


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          To evaluate lung high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with Puumala hantavirus-induced nephropathia epidemica (NE), and to determine if these findings correspond to chest radiograph findings.

          Materials and methods

          HRCT findings and clinical course were studied in 13 hospital-treated NE patients. Chest radiograph findings were studied in 12 of them.


          Twelve patients (92%) showed lung parenchymal abnormalities in HRCT, while only 8 had changes in their chest radiography. Atelectasis, pleural effusion, intralobular and interlobular septal thickening were the most common HRCT findings. Ground-glass opacification (GGO) was seen in 4 and hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy in 3 patients. Atelectasis and pleural effusion were also mostly seen in chest radiographs, other findings only in HRCT.


          Almost every NE patient showed lung parenchymal abnormalities in HRCT. The most common findings of lung involvement in NE can be defined as accumulation of pleural fluid and atelectasis and intralobular and interlobular septal thickening, most profusely in the lower parts of the lung. As a novel finding, lymphadenopathy was seen in a minority, probably related to capillary leakage and overall fluid overload. Pleural effusion is not the prominent feature in other viral pneumonias, whereas intralobular and interlobular septal thickening are characteristic of other viral pulmonary infections as well. Lung parenchymal findings in HRCT can thus be taken not to be disease-specific in NE and HRCT is useful only for scientific purposes.

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          Most cited references25

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          Hantavirus infections in Europe.

          Hantaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses each carried by a specific rodent species. Three hantaviruses, Puumala, Dobrava, and Saaremaa viruses, are known to cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. In Europe. Puumala causes a generally mild disease, nephropathia epidemica, which presents most commonly with fever, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, impaired renal function, and blurred vision, whereas Dobrava infections often also have haemorrhagic complications. There are few available data about the clinical picture of confirmed Saaremaa infections, but epidemiological evidence suggests that it is less pathogenic than Dobrava, and that Saaremaa infections are more similar to nephropathia epidemica caused by Puumala. Along with its rodent host, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), Puumala is reported throughout most of Europe (excluding the Mediterranean region), whereas Dobrava, carried by the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis), and Saaremaa, carried by the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), are reported mainly in eastern and central Europe. The diagnosis of acute hantavirus infection is based on the detection of virus-specific IgM. Whereas Puumala is distinct, Dobrava and Saaremaa are genetically and antigenically very closely related and were previously thought to be variants of the same virus. Typing of a specific hantavirus infection requires neutralisation antibody assays or reverse transcriptase PCR and sequencing.
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            Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: a clinical description of 17 patients with a newly recognized disease. The Hantavirus Study Group.

            In May 1993 an outbreak of severe respiratory illness occurred in the southwestern United States. A previously unknown hantavirus was identified as the cause. In Asia hantaviruses are associated with hemorrhagic fever and renal disease. They have not been known as a cause of human disease in North America. We analyzed clinical, laboratory, and autopsy data on the first 17 persons with confirmed infection from this newly recognized strain of hantavirus. The mean age of the patients was 32.2 years (range, 13 to 64); 61 percent were women, 72 percent were Native American, 22 percent white, and 6 percent Hispanic. The most common prodromal symptoms were fever and myalgia (100 percent), cough or dyspnea (76 percent), gastrointestinal symptoms (76 percent), and headache (71 percent). The most common physical findings were tachypnea (100 percent), tachycardia (94 percent), and hypotension (50 percent). The laboratory findings included leukocytosis (median peak cell count, 26,000 per cubic millimeter), often with myeloid precursors, an increased hematocrit, thrombocytopenia (median lowest platelet count, 64,000 per cubic millimeter), prolonged prothrombin and partial-thromboplastin times, an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase concentration, decreased serum protein concentrations, and proteinuria. Rapidly progressive acute pulmonary edema developed in 15 of the 17 patients (88 percent), and 13 patients, all of whom had profound hypotension, died (case fatality rate, 76 percent). Increases in the hematocrit and partial-thromboplastin time were predictive of death. Infection with a newly described hantavirus causes the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, which is characterized by a brief prodromal illness followed by rapidly progressive, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema.
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              Genetic identification of a hantavirus associated with an outbreak of acute respiratory illness.

              A mysterious respiratory illness with high mortality was recently reported in the southwestern United States. Serologic studies implicated the hantaviruses, rodent-borne RNA viruses usually associated elsewhere in the world with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. A genetic detection assay amplified hantavirus-specific DNA fragments from RNA extracted from the tissues of patients and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) caught at or near patient residences. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the associated virus to be a new hantavirus and provided a direct genetic link between infection in patients and rodents.

                Author and article information

                Eur J Radiol
                Eur J Radiol
                European Journal of Radiology
                Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
                19 May 2011
                August 2012
                19 May 2011
                : 81
                : 8
                : 1707-1711
                [a ]Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere, Finland
                [b ]Department of Internal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere, Finland
                [c ]Medical School, University of Tampere, 33521 Tampere, Finland
                [d ]School of Public Health, University of Tampere, 33521 Tampere, Finland
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +358 3 31169347; fax: +358 3 31165586. antti.paakkala@ 123456pshp.fi
                Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 9 January 2011
                : 21 April 2011

                Radiology & Imaging
                high-resolution computed tomography,hantavirus pulmonary syndrome,nephropathia epidemica,puumala virus


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