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      Investigation on a focus of human trichinellosis revealed by an atypical clinical case after wild-boar ( Sus scrofa) pork consumption in northern Italy Translated title: Étude épidémiologique suite à la survenue d’un cas clinique atypique de trichinellose humaine due à la consommation de viande de sanglier ( Sus scrofa) en Italie

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          Trichinellosis is one of the most serious foodborne parasitic zoonoses in Europe. Wild carnivorous and omnivorous hosts are the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. nematodes in nature. In the winter of 2008-2009, an atypical clinical case of trichinellosis occurred for the consumption of pork from a wild boar ( Sus scrofa) hunted in southwestern Alps in Italy. The symptomatic individual showed delayed development of oedemas in the lower limbs and eosinophilia, which appeared three months after infection. Muscle samples harboured 3.8 larvae/g, which were identified as Trichinella britovi. During the epidemiological investigation, anti- Trichinella IgG were detected in five hunters.

          Translated abstract

          La trichinellose est l’une des plus importante zoonose parasitaire transmise par les aliments en Europe. Les animaux sauvages et les hôtes omnivores sont les importants réservoirs des nématodes du genre Trichinella spp. Durant l’hiver 2008-2009, un cas de trichinellose a été causé par la consommation de viande d’un sanglier ( Sus scrofa) chassé dans le sud-ouest des Alpes en Italie. La syptomatologie de la personne infectée a été tardive, avec un oedème des membres inferieures et une hyperéosinophilie qui sont apparus trois mois après la consommation. Les échantillons des muscles examinés hébergeaient 3,8 larves/g, identifiées comme Trichinella britovi. Au cours de l’étude épidémiologique, des IgG anti- Trichinella ont été détectées chez cinq chasseurs asymptomatiques.

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          Hosts and habitats of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi in Europe.

          Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are the two most common species of Trichinella circulating in Europe. Based on data provided to the International Trichinella Reference Centre over the past 20 years (data referring to 540 isolates of T. spiralis and 776 isolates of T. britovi), we describe the host species and habitat characteristics for these two pathogens in Europe. A Geographical Information System was constructed using administrative boundaries, a Corine Land Cover (CLC) map, and an elevation map. In most countries, T. britovi is more widespread (62.5-100% of the isolates) than T. spiralis (0.0-37.5%), although in Finland, Germany, Poland and Spain, T. spiralis is more prevalent (56.3-84.2% of the isolates). Trichinella britovi is more widespread than T. spiralis in sylvatic carnivores (89% versus 11%), whereas T. spiralis is prevalent in both wild boars (62% versus 38%) and domestic swine (82% versus 18%), as well as in rodents (75% versus 25%). Trichinella spiralis and T. britovi circulate in the same environments: 41.1% and 46.0%, respectively, in agricultural areas, and 45.5% and 46.6% in forested and semi-natural areas. Although both pathogens can be transmitted by domestic and sylvatic cycles, their epidemiology is strongly influenced by the higher adaptability of T. spiralis to swine and of T. britovi to carnivores. These results are important because they include information on the countries at risk for these pathogens, the role played by specific species as reservoirs, the role of the pathogens in domestic and sylvatic cycles, and the role of the habitat in their circulation. The results can also be used to identify the most suitable animal species for the monitoring of these pathogens in Europe.
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            PCR-derived methods for the identification of Trichinella parasites from animal and human samples.

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              Chronic Trichinosis

              Acute trichinosis can be followed by a chronic stage. Myalgia is the main clinical symptom in the chronic course of the disease. From 19 patients with a history of acute trichinosis 2–42 years ago, 15 patients suffered from chronic myalgia. Other typical complaints of our patients in the chronic stage were opthalmodynia, burning of the eyes, headache and early fatigability.

                Author and article information

                Parasite : journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
                EDP Sciences
                February 2011
                15 February 2011
                : 18
                : 1 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2011/01 )
                : 85-87
                [1 ] SIAN ASL CN1 Mondovì Italy
                [2 ] SVET ASL CN1 Mondovì Italy
                [3 ] Family physician Roccaforte, Mondovì Italy
                [4 ] Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale of Piemonte Liguria and Valle d’Aosta, Turin Italy
                [5 ] National Reference Laboratory for Trichinella, Istituto Superiore di Sanità Rome Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Edoardo Pozio, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Tel.: 39 06 4990 2304 – Fax: 39 06 4990 3561 E-mail: edoardo.pozio@ 123456iss.it
                parasite2011181p85 10.1051/parasite/2011181085
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2011

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 12, Pages: 3
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