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      Origin and evolution of gibberellin signaling and metabolism in plants

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      Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
      Elsevier BV

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          The Physcomitrella genome reveals evolutionary insights into the conquest of land by plants.

          We report the draft genome sequence of the model moss Physcomitrella patens and compare its features with those of flowering plants, from which it is separated by more than 400 million years, and unicellular aquatic algae. This comparison reveals genomic changes concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general increase in gene family complexity; loss of genes associated with aquatic environments (e.g., flagellar arms); acquisition of genes for tolerating terrestrial stresses (e.g., variation in temperature and water availability); and the development of the auxin and abscisic acid signaling pathways for coordinating multicellular growth and dehydration response. The Physcomitrella genome provides a resource for phylogenetic inferences about gene function and for experimental analysis of plant processes through this plant's unique facility for reverse genetics.
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            The role of gibberellin signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress.

            Plant hormones are small molecules that regulate plant growth and development, as well as responses to changing environmental conditions. By modifying the production, distribution or signal transduction of these hormones, plants are able to regulate and coordinate both growth and/or stress tolerance to promote survival or escape from environmental stress. A central role for the gibberellin (GA) class of growth hormones in the response to abiotic stress is becoming increasingly evident. Reduction of GA levels and signalling has been shown to contribute to plant growth restriction on exposure to several stresses, including cold, salt and osmotic stress. Conversely, increased GA biosynthesis and signalling promote growth in plant escape responses to shading and submergence. In several cases, GA signalling has also been linked to stress tolerance. The transcriptional regulation of GA metabolism appears to be a major point of regulation of the GA pathway, while emerging evidence for interaction of the GA-signalling molecule DELLA with components of the signalling pathway for the stress hormone jasmonic acid suggests additional mechanisms by which GA signalling may integrate multiple hormone signalling pathways in the response to stress. Here, we review the evidence for the role of GA in these processes, and the regulation of the GA signalling pathway on exposure to abiotic stress. The potential mechanisms by which GA signalling modulates stress tolerance are also discussed.
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              Insights into Land Plant Evolution Garnered from the Marchantia polymorpha Genome

              The evolution of land flora transformed the terrestrial environment. Land plants evolved from an ancestral charophycean alga from which they inherited developmental, biochemical, and cell biological attributes. Additional biochemical and physiological adaptations to land, and a life cycle with an alternation between multicellular haploid and diploid generations that facilitated efficient dispersal of desiccation tolerant spores, evolved in the ancestral land plant. We analyzed the genome of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a member of a basal land plant lineage. Relative to charophycean algae, land plant genomes are characterized by genes encoding novel biochemical pathways, new phytohormone signaling pathways (notably auxin), expanded repertoires of signaling pathways, and increased diversity in some transcription factor families. Compared with other sequenced land plants, M. polymorpha exhibits low genetic redundancy in most regulatory pathways, with this portion of its genome resembling that predicted for the ancestral land plant. PAPERCLIP.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
                Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
                Elsevier BV
                10849521
                January 2021
                January 2021
                : 109
                : 46-54
                Article
                10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.04.009
                32414681
                b88a538e-8338-498a-b8c2-28694364f8f1
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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