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      Distribution of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR)135 Binding Sites and Receptor mRNA in the Rat Brain Suggests a Role for Relaxin-3 in Neuroendocrine and Sensory Processing


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          G-protein-coupled receptor 135 (GPCR135), a former orphan GPCR also known as SALPR, has recently been shown to be modulated by relaxin-3 (R3). In addition to GPCR135, R3 has been shown to be an agonist for GPCR142 (which is a pseudogene in the rat) and to activate LGR7, which is primarily the receptor for relaxin-1/2. The interaction of R3 with LGR7 has confounded the autoradiographic study of the GPCR135 distribution in the rat CNS due to significant expression of LGR7 in the brain. R3/I5, a chimera of the B-chain of R3 bonded to the A-chain of INSL-5, is a specific GPCR135 agonist which is highly selective for GPCR135 over LGR7. [<sup>125</sup>I]R3/I5 specifically binds to sites on rat brain sections with a pharmacology matching results from membrane preparations of recombinant GPCR135 receptors. Autoradiographic studies show the GPCR135 receptor density is most prominent in areas such as the olfactory bulb, sensory cortex, amygdala, thalamus, paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, inferior and superior colliculus. The GPCR135 mRNA distribution generally overlaps the pattern of GPCR135 binding sites shown by autoradiography using [<sup>125</sup>I]R3/I5. The nucleus incertus, which has been implicated in the extrapituitary actions of corticotropin-releasing hormone, is the primary source of R3 in the rat central nervous system and expresses GPCR135 receptors. These binding autoradiography and in situ hybridization data suggest that GPCR135 plays an important role in the central processing of sensory signals in rats, are consistent with a putative role for R3/GPCR135 as modulators of stress responses, and confirm the identity of R3 as the central nervous system ligand for GPCR135.

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          Distribution of mRNAs encoding CRF receptors in brain and pituitary of rat and mouse.

          Two G protein-coupled receptors have been identified that bind corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urocortin (UCN) with high affinity. Hybridization histochemical methods were used to shed light on controversies concerning their localization in rat brain, and to provide normative distributional data in mouse, the standard model for genetic manipulation in mammals. The distribution of CRF-R1 mRNA in mouse was found to be fundamentally similar to that in rat, with expression predominating in the cerebral cortex, sensory relay nuclei, and in the cerebellum and its major afferents. Pronounced species differences in distribution were few, although more subtle variations in the relative strength of R1 expression were seen in several forebrain regions. CRF-R2 mRNA displayed comparable expression in rat and mouse brain, distinct from, and more restricted than that of CRF-R1. Major neuronal sites of CRF-R2 expression included aspects of the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, medial and posterior cortical nuclei of the amygdala, ventral hippocampus, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, and novel localizations in the nucleus of the solitary tract and area postrema. Several sites of expression in the limbic forebrain were found to overlap partially with ones of androgen receptor expression. In pituitary, rat and mouse displayed CRF-R1 mRNA signal continuously over the intermediate lobe and over a subset of cells in the anterior lobe, whereas CRF-R2 transcripts were expressed mainly in the posterior lobe. The distinctive expression pattern of CRF-R2 mRNA identifies additional putative central sites of action for CRF and/or UCN. Constitutive expression of CRF-R2 mRNA in the nucleus of the solitary tract, and stress-inducible expression of CRF-R1 transcripts in the paraventricular nucleus may provide a basis for understanding documented effects of CRF-related peptides at a loci shown previously to lack a capacity for CRF-R expression or CRF binding. Other such "mismatches" remain to be reconciled. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Human insulin receptor and its relationship to the tyrosine kinase family of oncogenes

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              Activation of orphan receptors by the hormone relaxin.

              Relaxin is a hormone important for the growth and remodeling of reproductive and other tissues during pregnancy. Although binding sites for relaxin are widely distributed, the nature of its receptor has been elusive. Here, we demonstrate that two orphan heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors, LGR7 and LGR8, are capable of mediating the action of relaxin through an adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathway distinct from that of the structurally related insulin and insulin-like growth factor family ligand. Treatment of antepartum mice with the soluble ligand-binding region of LGR7 caused parturition delay. The wide and divergent distribution of the two relaxin receptors implicates their roles in reproductive, brain, renal, cardiovascular, and other functions.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                February 2005
                25 February 2005
                : 80
                : 5
                : 298-307
                Neuroscience Group, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, San Diego., Calif., USA
                83656 Neuroendocrinology 2004;80:298–307
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 27, Pages: 10
                Original Paper

                Endocrinology & Diabetes,Neurology,Nutrition & Dietetics,Sexual medicine,Internal medicine,Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                Relaxin-3,Paraventricular nucleus,Nucleus incertus,Relaxin,In situ hybridization,Stress,Amygdala,Cortex,G-protein-coupled receptors,Supraoptic nucleus,Corticotropin-releasing hormone,INSL-7


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