Aims: To assess the prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and to determine whether comorbidities such as inflammation, dyslipidemia and mineral metabolism disorders correlate with its development. Methods: Forty-nine PD patients (45% male; median age, 52 years) were submitted to multislice computed tomography. Inflammatory markers, anti-oxidized LDL antibody, calcium–phosphate balance and lipid profiles were assessed. Results: Twenty-nine patients (59.2%) presented CAC (median calcium score, 234.7 Agatston units). Patients with CAC were older than those without, more frequently presented a history of coronary artery disease or hypertension and had lower HDL cholesterol levels, as well as presenting higher levels of osteoprotegerin and LDL oxidation. The logistic regression revealed that the independent determinants of CAC were age (odds ratio = 1.12; p = 0.006) and number of prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs (odds ratio = 2.38; p = 0.048). When the population was stratified by calcium score quartile, soluble Fas levels were significantly higher in patients with severe calcification. In patients younger than 45, CAC correlated positively with phosphorus levels (r = 0.52; p = 0.04). Conclusion: In PD patients, CAC is highly prevalent. Our results indicate that conditions such as inflammation and mineral disturbances are associated with its development.