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      Nanobiohybrids: A Synergistic Integration of Bacteria and Nanomaterials in Cancer Therapy

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          Cancer is a common cause of mortality in the world. For cancer treatment modalities such as chemotherapy, photothermal therapy and immunotherapy, the concentration of therapeutic agents in tumor tissue is the key factor which determines therapeutic efficiency. In view of this, developing targeted drug delivery systems are of great significance in selectively delivering drugs to tumor regions. Various types of nanomaterials have been widely used as drug carriers. However, the low tumor-targeting ability of nanomaterials limits their clinical application. It is difficult for nanomaterials to penetrate the tumor tissue through passive diffusion due to the elevated tumoral interstitial fluid pressure. As a biological carrier, bacteria can specifically colonize and proliferate inside tumors and inhibit tumor growth, making it an ideal candidate as delivery vehicles. In addition, synthetic biology techniques have been applied to enable bacteria to controllably express various functional proteins and achieve targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. Nanobiohybrids constructed by the combination of bacteria and nanomaterials have an abundance of advantages, including tumor targeting ability, genetic modifiability, programmed product synthesis, and multimodal therapy. Nowadays, many different types of bacteria-based nanobiohybrids have been used in multiple targeted tumor therapies. In this review, firstly we summarized the development of nanomaterial-mediated cancer therapy. The mechanism and advantages of the bacteria in tumor therapy are described. Especially, we will focus on introducing different therapeutic strategies of nanobiohybrid systems which combine bacteria with nanomaterials in cancer therapy. It is demonstrated that the bacteria-based nanobiohybrids have the potential to provide a targeted and effective approach for cancer treatment.

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          Analysis of nanoparticle delivery to tumours

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            Tumor targeting via EPR: Strategies to enhance patient responses

            The tumor accumulation of nanomedicines relies on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. In the last 5-10 years, it has been increasingly recognized that there is a large inter- and intra-individual heterogeneity in EPR-mediated tumor targeting, explaining the heterogeneous outcomes of clinical trials in which nanomedicine formulations have been evaluated. To address this heterogeneity, as in other areas of oncology drug development, we have to move away from a one-size-fits-all tumor targeting approach, towards methods that can be employed to individualize and improve nanomedicine treatments. To this end, efforts have to be invested in better understanding the nature, the complexity and the heterogeneity of the EPR effect, and in establishing systems and strategies to enhance, combine, bypass and image EPR-based tumor targeting. In the present manuscript, we summarize key studies in which these strategies are explored, and we discuss how these approaches can be employed to enhance patient responses.
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              Synchronized cycles of bacterial lysis for in vivo delivery

              The pervasive view of bacteria as strictly pathogenic has given way to an appreciation of the widespread prevalence of beneficial microbes within the human body 1–3 . Given this milieu, it is perhaps inevitable that some bacteria would evolve to preferentially grow in environments that harbor disease and thus provide a natural platform for the development of engineered therapies 4–6 . Such therapies could benefit from bacteria that are programmed to limit bacterial growth while continually producing and releasing cytotoxic agents in situ 7–10 . Here, we engineer a clinically relevant bacterium to lyse synchronously at a threshold population density and to release genetically encoded cargo. Following quorum lysis, a small number of surviving bacteria reseed the growing population, thus leading to pulsatile delivery cycles. We use microfluidic devices to characterize the engineered lysis strain and we demonstrate its potential as a drug delivery platform via co-culture with human cancer cells in vitro. As a proof of principle, we track the bacterial population dynamics in ectopic syngeneic colorectal tumors in mice. The lysis strain exhibits pulsatile population dynamics in vivo, with mean bacterial luminescence that remained two orders of magnitude lower than an unmodified strain. Finally, guided by previous findings that certain bacteria can enhance the efficacy of standard therapies 11 , we orally administer the lysis strain, alone or in combination with a clinical chemotherapeutic, to a syngeneic transplantation model of hepatic colorectal metastases. We find that the combination of both circuit-engineered bacteria and chemotherapy leads to a notable reduction of tumor activity along with a marked survival benefit over either therapy alone. Our approach establishes a methodology for leveraging the tools of synthetic biology to exploit the natural propensity for certain bacteria to colonize disease sites.

                Author and article information

                BIO Integration
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                01 June 2020
                09 June 2020
                : 1
                : 1
                : 25-36
                1Department of Ultrasound Medicine, Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510150, China
                2Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhiyi Chen, MD, PhD; E-mail: zhiyi_chen@ 123456gzhmu.edu.cn
                Copyright © 2020 Bio Integration

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See https://bio-integration.org/copyright-and-permissions/

                Self URI (journal-page): https://bio-integration.org/
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