Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD) is associated with weaning difficulties, intensive care unit hospitalization (ICU), infant mortality, and poor long-term clinical outcomes. The expression patterns of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs in the diaphragm in a rat controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) model, however, remain to be investigated.
The diaphragms of five male Wistar rats in a CMV group and five control Wistar rats were used to explore lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Muscle force measurements and immunofluorescence (IF) staining were used to verify the successful establishment of the CMV model. A total of 906 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and 2,139 DE mRNAs were found in the CMV group. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to determine the biological functions or pathways of these DE mRNAs. Our results revealed that these DE mRNAs were related mainly related to complement and coagulation cascades, the PPAR signaling pathway, cholesterol metabolism, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and the AMPK signaling pathway. Some DE lncRNAs and DE mRNAs determined by RNA-seq were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), which exhibited trends similar to those observed by RNA-sEq. Co-expression network analysis indicated that three selected muscle atrophy-related mRNAs ( Myog, Trim63, and Fbxo32) were coexpressed with relatively newly discovered DE lncRNAs.
This study provides a novel perspective on the molecular mechanism of DE lncRNAs and mRNAs in a CMV model, and indicates that the inflammatory signaling pathway and lipid metabolism may play important roles in the pathophysiological mechanism and progression of VIDD.