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      Evaluation of Venous Drainage Patterns for Skull Base Meningioma Surgery


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          The evaluation of venous drainage patterns prior to surgery for skull base meningioma is important owing to their deep location and the vulnerability of surrounding vascular structures. In recent years, the microsurgical skull base approach has matured as a surgical technique, making it an important option for reducing complications related to skull base meningioma surgery. In addition, knowledge of the venous anatomy can prevent venous drainage route disturbance and potentially life-threatening complications. Hence, this topic review aimed to provide an overview of normal venous anatomy as it relates to the microsurgical skull base approach, discuss known changes in venous drainage routes that are associated with the progression of skull base meningioma and the selection of an appropriate operative approach with the highest likelihood of preserving venous drainage structures.

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          Petrosal approach for petroclival meningiomas.

          Thirteen patients harboring large petroclival meningiomas are reported. The evolution of the petrosal approach is discussed, and modifications for improvement in surgical technique are described. There was no mortality in this series, and total removal was achieved in all but two patients. Morbidity included cranial nerve deficit, pulmonary embolism, and hemiparesis.
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            Petroclival meningiomas: surgical experience in 109 cases.

            The surgical removal of petroclival meningiomas has historically been associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The 109 consecutive patients included in the present retrospective study represent a combined series of tumors operated on by the four authors during a period from 1980 to 1992. The series is composed of 40 men and 69 women ranging in age from 25 to 75 years (mean 51 years). Surgical approaches to tumors in this series included simple retromastoid (60 cases), combined supra- and infratentorial petrosal (22), transtemporal (primary transsigmoid retrolabyrinthine, translabyrinthine, or transcochlear (12), subtemporal (11), and frontotemporal transcavernous (eight). Gross-total removal was achieved in 75 patients (69%). Recurrence or progression of disease occurred in 14 patients (13%) over a 6.1-year mean follow-up period, and it was found within the cavernous sinus in 12 of these cases. Four recurrent cases demonstrated histological compatibility with malignant meningioma. Perioperative death occurred in four patients, and there were 56 significant complications in 35 other patients. Review of this series, with the attendant complications, has facilitated the authors' decision-making when considering the risk of gross-total removal in selected patients with asymptomatic cavernous sinus invasion or tumor adherent to the brainstem.
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              Microsurgical anatomy of the veins of the posterior fossa.

              The microsurgical anatomy of the veins of the posterior fossa was defined in 25 cadavers. These veins are divided into four groups: superficial, deep, brain-stem, and bridging veins. The superficial veins are divided on the basis of which of the three cortical surfaces they drain: the tentorial surface, which faces the tentorium and is exposed in a supracerebellar approach, is drained by the superior hemispheric and vermian veins; the suboccipital surface, which is below and between the lateral and sigmoid sinuses and is exposed in a wide suboccipital craniectomy, is drained by the inferior hemispheric and inferior vermian veins; and the petrosal surface, which faces forward toward the posterior surface of the petrous bone and is retracted to expose the cerebellopontine angle, is drained by the anterior hemispheric veins. The deep veins course in the three fissures between the cerebellum and the brain stem, and on the three cerebellar peduncles. The major deep veins in the fissures between the cerebellum and brain stem are the veins of the cerebellomesencephalic, cerebellomedullary, and cerebellopontine fissures, and those on the cerebellar peduncles are the veins of the superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles. The veins of the brain stem are named on the basis of whether they drain the midbrain, pons, or medulla. The veins of the posterior fossa terminate as bridging veins, which collect into three groups: a galenic group which drains into the vein of Galen; a petrosal group which drains into the petrosal sinuses; and a tentorial group which drains into the tentorial sinuses near the torcula.

                Author and article information

                Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo)
                Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
                Neurologia medico-chirurgica
                The Japan Neurosurgical Society
                October 2017
                05 June 2017
                : 57
                : 10
                : 505-512
                [1 ]Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan
                Author notes
                Address reprint requests to: Kazuhide Adachi, MD, PhD Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan. e-mail: kazu-adachi@ 123456rio.odn.ne.jp
                © 2017 The Japan Neurosurgical Society

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

                : 26 December 2016
                : 06 March 2017
                Review Article

                intracranial venous circulation,skull base meningioma,skull base approach,transpetrosal approach


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