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      Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

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          Abstract

          The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA) on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1) control (none added), (2) 2.5 ppm TA, (3) 5 ppm TA, (4) 10 ppm TA, and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only) at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Tannins and human health: a review.

          Tannins (commonly referred to as tannic acid) are water-soluble polyphenols that are present in many plant foods. They have been reported to be responsible for decreases in feed intake, growth rate, feed efficiency, net metabolizable energy, and protein digestibility in experimental animals. Therefore, foods rich in tannins are considered to be of low nutritional value. However, recent findings indicate that the major effect of tannins was not due to their inhibition on food consumption or digestion but rather the decreased efficiency in converting the absorbed nutrients to new body substances. Incidences of certain cancers, such as esophageal cancer, have been reported to be related to consumption of tannins-rich foods such as betel nuts and herbal teas, suggesting that tannins might be carcinogenic. However, other reports indicated that the carcinogenic activity of tannins might be related to components associated with tannins rather than tannins themselves. Interestingly, many reports indicated negative association between tea consumption and incidences of cancers. Tea polyphenols and many tannin components were suggested to be anticarcinogenic. Many tannin molecules have also been shown to reduce the mutagenic activity of a number of mutagens. Many carcinogens and/or mutagens produce oxygen-free radicals for interaction with cellular macromolecules. The anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic potentials of tannins may be related to their antioxidative property, which is important in protecting cellular oxidative damage, including lipid peroxidation. The generation of superoxide radicals was reported to be inhibited by tannins and related compounds. The antimicrobial activities of tannins are well documented. The growth of many fungi, yeasts, bacteria, and viruses was inhibited by tannins. We have also found that tannic acid and propyl gallate, but not gallic acid, were inhibitory to foodborne bacteria, aquatic bacteria, and off-flavor-producing microorganisms. Their antimicrobial properties seemed to be associated with the hydrolysis of ester linkage between gallic acid and polyols hydrolyzed after ripening of many edible fruits. Tannins in these fruits thus serve as a natural defense mechanism against microbial infections. The antimicrobial property of tannic acid can also be used in food processing to increase the shelf-life of certain foods, such as catfish fillets. Tannins have also been reported to exert other physiological effects, such as to accelerate blood clotting, reduce blood pressure, decrease the serum lipid level, produce liver necrosis, and modulate immunoresponses. The dosage and kind of tannins are critical to these effects. The aim of this review is to summarize and analyze the vast and sometimes conflicting literature on tannins and to provide as accurately as possible the needed information for assessment of the overall effects of tannins on human health.
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            Protein carbonyls in meat systems: a review.

            Protein oxidation (P-OX) is an innovative topic of increasing interest among meat researchers. Carbonylation is generally recognized as one of the most remarkable chemical modifications in oxidized proteins. In fact, the quantification of protein carbonyls by the dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) method is the most common procedure for assessing P-OX in meat systems. Numerous studies have investigated the occurrence of protein carbonylation right after slaughter and during subsequent processing and cold storage of meat. However, the significance of protein carbonylation in meat systems is still poorly understood. Beyond their role as markers of protein oxidation, specific protein carbonyls such as α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (AAS and GGS, respectively) are active compounds that may be implicated in several chemical reactions with relevant consequences on meat quality. The formation of protein carbonyls from particular amino acid side chains contribute to impair the conformation of myofibrillar proteins leading to denaturation and loss of functionality. Recent studies also highlight the potential impact of specific protein carbonyls in particular meat quality traits such as water-holding capacity (WHC), texture, flavor and its nutritional value. As a truly emerging topic, the results from current studies provide grounds from the development of further investigations. The present paper reviews the current knowledge on the mechanisms and consequences of protein carbonylation in meat systems and aims to encourage meat researchers to accomplish further investigations on this fascinating research topic.
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              Radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of tannic acid

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                antioxidants
                Antioxidants
                MDPI
                2076-3921
                13 June 2016
                June 2016
                : 5
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA; marwana@ 123456mutah.edu.jo (M.A.-H.); duahn@ 123456iastate.edu (D.U.A.)
                [2 ]Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI 54751, USA
                [3 ]Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA; amendon@ 123456iastate.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: leeeu@ 123456uwstout.edu ; Tel.: +1-715-232-1623; Fax: +1-715-232-2317
                Article
                antioxidants-05-00019
                10.3390/antiox5020019
                4931540
                27304971
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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