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      Complete Mitochondrial DNA Genome of Nine Species of Sharks and Rays and Their Phylogenetic Placement among Modern Elasmobranchs

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          Abstract

          Chondrichthyes occupy a key position in the phylogeny of vertebrates. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of four species of sharks and five species of rays was obtained by whole genome sequencing (DNA-seq) in the Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. The arrangement and features of the genes in the assembled mitogenomes were identical to those found in vertebrates. Both Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) analyses were used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among 172 species (including 163 mitogenomes retrieved from GenBank) based on the concatenated dataset of 13 individual protein coding genes. Both ML and BI analyses did not support the “Hypnosqualea” hypothesis and confirmed the monophyly of sharks and rays. The broad notion in shark phylogeny, namely the division of sharks into Galeomorphii and Squalomorphii and the monophyly of the eight shark orders, was also supported. The phylogenetic placement of all nine species sequenced in this study produced high statistical support values. The present study expands our knowledge on the systematics, genetic differentiation, and conservation genetics of the species studied, and contributes to our understanding of the evolutionary history of Chondrichthyes.

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          Trimmomatic: a flexible trimmer for Illumina sequence data

          Motivation: Although many next-generation sequencing (NGS) read preprocessing tools already existed, we could not find any tool or combination of tools that met our requirements in terms of flexibility, correct handling of paired-end data and high performance. We have developed Trimmomatic as a more flexible and efficient preprocessing tool, which could correctly handle paired-end data. Results: The value of NGS read preprocessing is demonstrated for both reference-based and reference-free tasks. Trimmomatic is shown to produce output that is at least competitive with, and in many cases superior to, that produced by other tools, in all scenarios tested. Availability and implementation: Trimmomatic is licensed under GPL V3. It is cross-platform (Java 1.5+ required) and available at http://www.usadellab.org/cms/index.php?page=trimmomatic Contact: usadel@bio1.rwth-aachen.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            Basic local alignment search tool.

            A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.
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              Geneious Basic: An integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data

              Summary: The two main functions of bioinformatics are the organization and analysis of biological data using computational resources. Geneious Basic has been designed to be an easy-to-use and flexible desktop software application framework for the organization and analysis of biological data, with a focus on molecular sequences and related data types. It integrates numerous industry-standard discovery analysis tools, with interactive visualizations to generate publication-ready images. One key contribution to researchers in the life sciences is the Geneious public application programming interface (API) that affords the ability to leverage the existing framework of the Geneious Basic software platform for virtually unlimited extension and customization. The result is an increase in the speed and quality of development of computation tools for the life sciences, due to the functionality and graphical user interface available to the developer through the public API. Geneious Basic represents an ideal platform for the bioinformatics community to leverage existing components and to integrate their own specific requirements for the discovery, analysis and visualization of biological data. Availability and implementation: Binaries and public API freely available for download at http://www.geneious.com/basic, implemented in Java and supported on Linux, Apple OSX and MS Windows. The software is also available from the Bio-Linux package repository at http://nebc.nerc.ac.uk/news/geneiousonbl. Contact: peter@biomatters.com
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Genes (Basel)
                Genes (Basel)
                genes
                Genes
                MDPI
                2073-4425
                24 February 2021
                March 2021
                : 12
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, 12800 Prague, Czech Republic; kousteni@ 123456inale.gr (V.K.); sofia.mazzoleni@ 123456natur.cuni.cz (S.M.); kvasileiadou@ 123456hcmr.gr (K.V.)
                [2 ]Institute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology and Aquaculture, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Thalassocosmos, P.O. Box 2214, 71003 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: michail.rovatsos@ 123456natur.cuni.cz ; Tel.: +42-02-2195-1758
                Article
                genes-12-00324
                10.3390/genes12030324
                7995966
                33668210
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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