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      Emergence of Raoultella ornithinolytica isolated from chicken products in Alexandria, Egypt


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          Background and Aim:

          Raoultella ornithinolytica is one of the emerging gram-negative bacteria, which associated with foodborne illness. Researches affirmed that distinguish between R. ornithinolytica and Klebsiella oxytoca are difficult, as they are phylogenetic related. The evolution of multidrug resistance of Raoultella strains gained more concern for recognition of the pathogen which supports in controlling the disease and minify its threat. This study sought to find a reliable tool for the identification of Raoultella ornithinolytica, isolated from chicken product samples, and assessed the resistance profile of R. ornithinolytica using antibiogram sensitivity tests.

          Materials and Methods:

          Forty samples of chicken products were collected between January and September 2019 from different markets in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. The products included nuggets, strips, burgers, luncheon meats, pane, frankfurters, and minced chicken meat. The samples were transferred to the Reference Laboratory. The samples were subjected to isolation, biochemical reaction testing, phenotypic system analytical profile index (API) E20, and a detection of antimicrobial susceptibility test. Phenotypic identification was confirmed through matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).


          Thirty-three bacterial isolates (82.50%) out of 40 samples were isolated into pure cultures from the chicken samples. Three isolates (9.09%) were positive for R. ornithinolytica, while 30 isolates (90.91%) exhibited growth characters for different pathogens ( Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, R. ornithinolytica, and Klebsiella pneumoniae). The isolates of R. ornithinolytica were resistant to five types of antibiotics and sensitive to two types of antibiotics.


          This study reported the first case of R. ornithinolytica found in chicken products in Egypt. Phenotypic system API 20E and MALDI-TOF MS were found to be reliable tools for confirming the diagnosis of R. ornithinolytica. As it provides rapid identification with high sensitivity and specificity for R. ornithinolytica, which often do not require a molecular procedure for confirmation.

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          Most cited references30

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          Phylogenetic analyses of Klebsiella species delineate Klebsiella and Raoultella gen. nov., with description of Raoultella ornithinolytica comb. nov., Raoultella terrigena comb. nov. and Raoultella planticola comb. nov.

          The phylogenetic relationships of the type strains of 9 Klebsiella species and 20 species from 11 genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae were investigated by performing a comparative analysis of the sequences of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The sequence data were phylogenetically analysed by the neighbourjoining and parsimony methods. The phylogenetic inference of the sequence comparison confirmed that the genus Klebsiella is heterogeneous and composed of species which form three clusters that also included members of other genera, including Enterobacter aerogenes, Erwinia clusters I and II and Tatumella. Cluster I contained the type strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae. Cluster II contained Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella planticola, Klebsiella trevisanii and Klebsiella terrigena, organisms characterized by growth at 10 degrees C and utilization of L-sorbose as carbon source. Cluster III contained Klebsiella oxytoca. The data from the sequence analyses along with previously reported biochemical and DNA-DNA hybridization data support the division of the genus Klebsiella into two genera and one genogroup. The name Raoultella is proposed as a genus name for species of cluster II and emended definitions of Klebsiella species are proposed.
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            Bacterial community structure and effects of picornavirus infection on the anterior nares microbiome in early childhood

            Background Little is known regarding the nasal microbiome in early childhood and the impact of respiratory infection on the infants’ nasal microbial composition. Here we investigated the temporal dynamics and diversity of the bacterial composition in the anterior nares in children attending daycare centers. Results For our investigation, we considered 76 parental-taken nasal swabs of 26 children (aged 13 to 36 months) collected over a study period of 3 months. Overall, there was no significant age-specific effect or seasonal shift in the nasal bacterial community structure. In a sub-sample of 14 healthy children the relative abundance of individual taxa as well as the overall diversity did not reveal relevant changes, indicating a stable community structure over the entire study period. Moreover, the nasal bacterial profiles clustered subject-specific with Bray-Curtis similarities being elevated in intra-subject calculations compared to between-subject calculations. The remaining subset of 12 children provided samples taken during picornavirus infection (PVI) and either before or after a PVI. We detected an association between the relative abundance of members of the genus Streptococcus and PV when comparing both (i) samples taken during PVI with samples out of 14 healthy children and (ii) samples taken during PVI with samples taken after PVI within the same individual. In addition, the diversity was higher during PVI than after infection. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a personalized structure of the nasal bacterial community is established already in early childhood and could be detected over a timeframe of 3 months. Studies following infants over a longer time with frequent swab sampling would allow investigating whether certain parameter of the bacterial community, such as the temporal variability, could be related to viral infection. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12866-018-1372-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              rpoB sequence analysis as a novel basis for bacterial identification.

              Comparison of the sequences of conserved genes, most commonly those encoding 16S rRNA, is used for bacterial genotypic identification. Among some taxa, such as the Enterobacteriaceae, variation within this gene does not allow confident species identification. We investigated the usefulness of RNA polymerase beta-subunit encoding gene (rpoB) sequences as an alternative tool for universal bacterial genotypic identification. We generated a database of partial rpoB for 14 Enterobacteriaceae species and then assessed the intra- and interspecies divergence between the rpoB and the 16S rRNA genes by pairwise comparisons. We found that levels of divergence between the rpoB sequences of different strains were markedly higher than those between their 16S rRNA genes. This higher discriminatory power was further confirmed by assigning 20 blindly selected clinical isolates to the correct enteric species on the basis of rpoB sequence comparison. Comparison of rpoB sequences from Enterobacteriaceae was also used as the basis for their phylogenetic analysis and demonstrated the genus Klebsiella to be polyphyletic. The trees obtained with rpoB were more compatible with the currently accepted classification of Enterobacteriaceae than those obtained with 16S rRNA. These data indicate that rpoB is a powerful identification tool, which may be useful for universal bacterial identification.

                Author and article information

                Vet World
                Vet World
                Veterinary World
                Veterinary World (India )
                July 2020
                29 July 2020
                : 13
                : 7
                : 1473-1479
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology, Animal Health Research Institute, Marsa Matruh, Egypt
                [2 ]Department of Bacteriology, Immunology, and Mycology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Banha, Egypt
                [3 ]The Reference Laboratory for Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Sara M. El-Shannat, e-mail: saramvet@ 123456yahoo.com Co-authors: AAAE: ashrafabdeltwab@ 123456yahoo.com , WMMH: fooaaa@ 123456live.com
                Copyright: © El-Shannat, et al.

                Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article

                analytical profile index 20e,matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry,phenotypic system,raoultella ornithinolytica


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