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      In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Carica papaya seed hexane extract against Strongyloides venezuelensis

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          ABSTRACT

          Strongyloidiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis whose treatment is particularly difficult in immunosuppressed patients due to their low responsiveness to conventional therapy. Carica papaya and its isolated compounds benzyl isothiocyanate, carpaine and carpasemine are promising compound for the treatment of Strongyloides infections due to their anthelmintic action. This study aims to examine the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of C. papaya seed hexane extract against Strongyloides venezuelensis, using egg hatching tests and larval motility tests as efficiency markers. The crude extract at the concentrations of 566 – 0.0566 mg/mL or the control with albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and negative controls (water and PBS) were incubated with an equal volume of egg suspension (± 50 specimens) followed by counting of the specimens after 48 h. The same extract and dilutions were added to L3 larvae suspensions (±50 specimens) followed by analysis of larvae viability after 24, 48, and 72 h. The extract inhibited egg hatching with high efficiency at concentrations of 56.6 mg/mL (95.74%) and 5.66 mg/mL (92.16%). At the concentrations of 566 mg/mL (100%) and 56.66 mg/mL (97.32%), the extract inhibited larval motility as effectively as ivermectin (0.316 mg/mL; 100%), and more effectively than the other dilutions and the negative controls. The larvicidal effect depended on the extract concentration, but not on the treatment period. Therefore, C. papaya seed hexane extract has anthelmintic potential against S. venezuelensis and is a promising compound for the development of phytotherapies to treat strongyloidiasis.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Plants as source of drugs.

           S.M.K. Rates (2001)
          This work presents a study of the importance of natural products, especially those derived from higher plants, in terms of drug development. It describes the main strategies for obtaining drugs from natural sources, fields of knowledge involved, difficulties and perspectives. It also includes a brief discussion of the specific situation in Brazil regarding the use of, trade in, and research into therapeutic resources of natural origin and the general lack of awareness of the use of potentially toxic plants, mainly in folk medicine.
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            Intestinal strongyloidiasis and hyperinfection syndrome

            In spite of recent advances with experiments on animal models, strongyloidiasis, an infection caused by the nematode parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, has still been an elusive disease. Though endemic in some developing countries, strongyloidiasis still poses a threat to the developed world. Due to the peculiar but characteristic features of autoinfection, hyperinfection syndrome involving only pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems, and disseminated infection with involvement of other organs, strongyloidiasis needs special attention by the physician, especially one serving patients in areas endemic for strongyloidiasis. Strongyloidiasis can occur without any symptoms, or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. Th2 cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity and mucosal immunity have been shown to have protective effects against this parasitic infection especially in animal models. Any factors that suppress these mechanisms (such as intercurrent immune suppression or glucocorticoid therapy) could potentially trigger hyperinfection or disseminated infection which could be fatal. Even with the recent advances in laboratory tests, strongyloidiasis is still difficult to diagnose. But once diagnosed, the disease can be treated effectively with antihelminthic drugs like Ivermectin. This review article summarizes a case of strongyloidiasis and various aspects of strongyloidiasis, with emphasis on epidemiology, life cycle of Strongyloides stercoralis, clinical manifestations of the disease, corticosteroids and strongyloidiasis, diagnostic aspects of the disease, various host defense pathways against strongyloidiasis, and available treatment options.
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              Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts.

              Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although both appeared when these extracts were incubated with a myrosinase-containing fraction prepared from papaya seeds. A 10 h incubation of crude seed extracts at room temperature led to a decrease in anthelmintic activity and fractionated samples showed a lower benzyl isothiocyanate content relative to non-incubated controls. Benzyl thiocyanate, benzyl cyanide, and benzonitrile were not detected in any preparations and cyanogenic glucosides. which were present, could not account for the anthelmintic activity detected. Thus, our results are best explained if benzyl isothiocyanate is the predominant or sole anthelmintic agent in papaya seed extracts regardless of how seeds are extracted.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo
                Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
                rimtsp
                Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
                Instituto de Medicina Tropical
                0036-4665
                1678-9946
                25 November 2019
                2019
                : 61
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Universidade Federal de Goiás, Regional Jataí, Unidade Acadêmica Especial de Ciências da Saúde, Laboratório de Parasitologia, Jataí, Goiás, Brazil
                [2 ]Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Imunologia, Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil
                [3 ]Universidade Federal de Goiás, Regional Jataí, Unidade Acadêmica Especial de Ciências Exatas, Laboratório de Química, Jataí, Goiás, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Rosângela Maria Rodrigues Universidade Federal de Goiás, Regional Jataí, Unidade Acadêmica Especial de Ciências da Saúde, Laboratório de Parasitologia. Campus Cidade Universitária, BR. 364, Km 195, nº 3800, CEP 75801-615, Jataí, GO, Brazil Tel: +55 64 96232172 E-mail: rosismaria@ 123456yahoo.com.br

                AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS

                All authors have made significant contributions to the design, execution, analysis and writing of the study.

                CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

                The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

                Article
                00230
                10.1590/S1678-9946201961059
                6880996
                31778389

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 26, Pages: NaN
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