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      A Multiscale Vibrational Spectroscopic Approach for Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Pollen

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          Abstract

          Background

          Analysis of pollen grains reveals valuable information on biology, ecology, forensics, climate change, insect migration, food sources and aeroallergens. Vibrational (infrared and Raman) spectroscopies offer chemical characterization of pollen via identifiable spectral features without any sample pretreatment. We have compared the level of chemical information that can be obtained by different multiscale vibrational spectroscopic techniques.

          Methodology

          Pollen from 15 different species of Pinales (conifers) were measured by seven infrared and Raman methodologies. In order to obtain infrared spectra, both reflectance and transmission measurements were performed on ground and intact pollen grains (bulk measurements), in addition, infrared spectra were obtained by microspectroscopy of multigrain and single pollen grain measurements. For Raman microspectroscopy measurements, spectra were obtained from the same pollen grains by focusing two different substructures of pollen grain. The spectral data from the seven methodologies were integrated into one data model by the Consensus Principal Component Analysis, in order to obtain the relations between the molecular signatures traced by different techniques.

          Results

          The vibrational spectroscopy enabled biochemical characterization of pollen and detection of phylogenetic variation. The spectral differences were clearly connected to specific chemical constituents, such as lipids, carbohydrates, carotenoids and sporopollenins. The extensive differences between pollen of Cedrus and the rest of Pinaceae family were unambiguously connected with molecular composition of sporopollenins in pollen grain wall, while pollen of Picea has apparently higher concentration of carotenoids than the rest of the family. It is shown that vibrational methodologies have great potential for systematic collection of data on ecosystems and that the obtained phylogenetic variation can be well explained by the biochemical composition of pollen. Out of the seven tested methodologies, the best taxonomical differentiation of pollen was obtained by infrared measurements on bulk samples, as well as by Raman microspectroscopy measurements of the corpus region of the pollen grain. Raman microspectroscopy measurements indicate that measurement area, as well as the depth of focus, can have crucial influence on the obtained data.

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          Most cited references18

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          Comparative Chloroplast Genomics Reveals the Evolution of Pinaceae Genera and Subfamilies

          As the largest and the basal-most family of conifers, Pinaceae provides key insights into the evolutionary history of conifers. We present comparative chloroplast genomics and analysis of concatenated 49 chloroplast protein-coding genes common to 19 gymnosperms, including 15 species from 8 Pinaceous genera, to address the long-standing controversy about Pinaceae phylogeny. The complete cpDNAs of Cathaya argyrophylla and Cedrus deodara (Abitoideae) and draft cpDNAs of Larix decidua, Picea morrisonicola, and Pseudotsuga wilsoniana are reported. We found 21- and 42-kb inversions in congeneric species and different populations of Pinaceous species, which indicates that structural polymorphics may be common and ancient in Pinaceae. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that Cedrus is clustered with Abies–Keteleeria rather than the basal-most genus of Pinaceae and that Cathaya is closer to Pinus than to Picea or Larix–Pseudotsuga. Topology and structural change tests and indel-distribution comparisons lend further evidence to our phylogenetic finding. Our molecular datings suggest that Pinaceae first evolved during Early Jurassic, and diversification of Pinaceous subfamilies and genera took place during Mid-Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous, respectively. Using different maximum-likelihood divergences as thresholds, we conclude that 2 (Abietoideae and Larix–Pseudotsuga–Piceae–Cathaya–Pinus), 4 (Cedrus, non-Cedrus Abietoideae, Larix–Pseudotsuga, and Piceae–Cathaya–Pinus), or 5 (Cedrus, non-Cedrus Abietoideae, Larix–Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Cathaya–Pinus) groups/subfamilies are more reasonable delimitations for Pinaceae. Specifically, our views on subfamilial classifications differ from previous studies in terms of the rank of Cedrus and with recognition of more than two subfamilies.
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            Patterns of pollen dispersal in a small population of Pinus sylvestris L. revealed by total-exclusion paternity analysis.

            Patterns of pollen dispersal were investigated in a small, isolated, relict population of Pinus sylvestris L., consisting of 36 trees. A total-exclusion battery comprising four chloroplast and two nuclear microsatellites (theoretical paternity exclusion probability EP=0.996) was used to assign paternity to 813 seeds, collected from 34 trees in the stand. Long-distance pollen immigration accounted for 4.3% of observed matings. Self-fertilization rate was very high (0.25), compared with typical values in more widespread populations of the species. The average effective pollen dispersal distance within the stand was 48 m (or 83 m excluding selfs). Half of effective pollen was dispersed within 11 m, and 7% beyond 200 m. A strong correlation was found between the distance to the closest tree and the mean mating-distance calculated for single-tree progenies. The effective pollen dispersal distribution showed a leptokurtic shape, with a large and significant departure from that expected under uniform dispersal. A maximum-likelihood procedure was used to fit an individual pollen dispersal distance probability density function (dispersal kernel). The estimated kernel indicated fairly leptokurtic dispersal (shape parameter b=0.67), with an average pollen dispersal distance of 135 m, and 50% of pollen dispersed beyond 30 m. A marked directionality pattern of pollen dispersal was found, mainly caused by the uneven distribution of trees, coupled with restricted dispersal and unequal male success. Overall, results show that the number and distribution of potential pollen donors in small populations may strongly influence the patterns of effective pollen dispersal.
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              Optimizing Savitzky-Golay parameters for improving spectral resolution and quantification in infrared spectroscopy.

              Calculating derivatives of spectral data by the Savitzky-Golay (SG) numerical algorithm is often used as a preliminary preprocessing step to resolve overlapping signals, enhance signal properties, and suppress unwanted spectral features that arise due to nonideal instrument and sample properties. Addressing these issues, a study of the simulated and measured infrared data by partial least-squares regression has been conducted. The simulated data sets were modeled by considering a range of undesired chemical and physical spectral anomalies and variations that can occur in a measured spectrum, such as baseline variations, noise, and scattering effects. The study has demonstrated the importance of the optimization of the SG parameters during the conversion of spectra into derivative form, specifically window size and polynomial order of the fitting curve. A specific optimal window size is associated with an exact component of the system being estimated, and this window size does not necessarily apply for some other component present in the system. Since the optimization procedure can be time-consuming, as a rough guideline spectral noise level can be used for assessment of window size. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that, when the extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) is used alongside the SG procedure, the derivative treatment of data by the SG algorithm must precede the EMSC normalization.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                16 September 2015
                2015
                : 10
                : 9
                : e0137899
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway
                [2 ]Nofima AS, Ås, Norway
                Glasgow University, UNITED KINGDOM
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared the following interests: Achim Kohler is employed by Nofima AS. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This did not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: MB BZ AK. Performed the experiments: MB BZ. Analyzed the data: MB BZ AK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BZ AK. Wrote the paper: MB BZ AK.

                Article
                PONE-D-15-10254
                10.1371/journal.pone.0137899
                4574200
                26376486
                b8b4e19c-4ebd-40a1-b296-dfddb1fc53ad
                Copyright @ 2015

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                History
                : 9 March 2015
                : 22 August 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Pages: 19
                Funding
                This work was supported by the European Commission through the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IEF project N°. 328289) (BZ,AK); The Ministry of Education, Sciences and Sports of the Republic of Croatia (project N°. 098-0982904-2927) (BZ). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Nofima AS provided support in the form of a salary for author AK, but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The specific role of this author is articulated in the "Author Contributions" section.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                All spectral files are available from the Dryad database (DOI: doi: 10.5061/dryad.b7g8p).

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