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      Phosphate Import in Plants: Focus on the PHT1 Transporters

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          Abstract

          The main source of phosphorus for plants is inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is characterized by its poor availability and low mobility. Uptake of this element from the soil relies heavily upon the PHT1 transporters, a specific family of plant plasma membrane proteins that were identified by homology with the yeast PHO84 Pi transporter. Since the discovery of PHT1 transporters in 1996, various studies have revealed that their function is controlled by a highly complex network of regulation. This review will summarize the current state of research on plant PHT1 multigenic families, including physiological, biochemical, molecular, cellular, and genetics studies.

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          Phosphorus acquisition and use: critical adaptations by plants for securing a nonrenewable resource

          Phosphorus (P) is limiting for crop yield on > 30% of the world's arable land and, by some estimates, world resources of inexpensive P may be depleted by 2050. Improvement of P acquisition and use by plants is critical for economic, humanitarian and environmental reasons. Plants have evolved a diverse array of strategies to obtain adequate P under limiting conditions, including modifications to root architecture, carbon metabolism and membrane structure, exudation of low molecular weight organic acids, protons and enzymes, and enhanced expression of the numerous genes involved in low-P adaptation. These adaptations may be less pronounced in mycorrhizal-associated plants. The formation of cluster roots under P-stress by the nonmycorrhizal species white lupin (Lupinus albus), and the accompanying biochemical changes exemplify many of the plant adaptations that enhance P acquisition and use. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular studies of white lupin and other species response to P-deficiency have identified targets that may be useful for plant improvement. Genomic approaches involving identification of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) found under low-P stress may also yield target sites for plant improvement. Interdisciplinary studies uniting plant breeding, biochemistry, soil science, and genetics under the large umbrella of genomics are prerequisite for rapid progress in improving nutrient acquisition and use in plants. Contents I. Introduction 424 II. The phosphorus conundrum 424 III. Adaptations to low P 424 IV. Uptake of P 424 V. P deficiency alters root development and function 426 VI. P deficiency modifies carbon metabolism 431 VII. Acid phosphatase 436 VIII. Genetic regulation of P responsive genes 437 IX. Improving P acquisition 439 X. Synopsis 440.
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            Phosphorus Uptake by Plants: From Soil to Cell

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              PHOSPHATE ACQUISITION.

              Phosphorus is one of the major plant nutrients that is least available in the soil. Consequently, plants have developed numerous morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular adaptations to acquire phosphate (Pi). Enhanced ability to acquire Pi and altered gene expression are the hallmarks of plant adaptation to Pi deficiency. The intricate mechanisms involved in maintaining Pi homeostasis reflect the complexity of Pi acquisition and translocation in plants. Recent discoveries of multiple Pi transporters have opened up opportunities to study the molecular basis of Pi acquisition by plants. An increasing number of genes are now known to be activated under Pi starvation. Some of these genes may be involved in Pi acquisition, transfer, and signal transduction during Pi stress. This review provides an overview of plant adaptations leading to enhanced Pi acquisition, with special emphasis on recent developments in the molecular biology of Pi acquisition.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in plant science
                Frontiers Research Foundation
                1664-462X
                30 November 2011
                2011
                : 2
                : 83
                Affiliations
                [1] 1simpleIBEB-SBVME Laboratoire de Biologie du Développement des Plantes, UMR6191 CNRS-Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives Cadarache, Université Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance France
                [2] 2simpleGraduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo, Japan 113-8657
                Author notes

                Edited by: Angus S. Murphy, Purdue University, USA

                Reviewed by: Bronwyn Jane Barkla, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico; Joshua Blakeslee, The Ohio State University, USA

                *Correspondence: Laurent Nussaume, IBEB-SBVME Laboratoire de Biologie du Développement des Plantes, UMR 6191 CNRS-Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives Cadarache, Université d’Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex, France. e-mail: lnussaume@ 123456cea.fr

                This article was submitted to Frontiers in Plant Traffic and Transport, a specialty of Frontiers in Plant Science.

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2011.00083
                3355772
                22645553
                b8ce0b21-bd42-413f-bbff-a8cf47590104
                Copyright © 2011 Nussaume, Kanno, Javot, Marin, Pochon, Ayadi, Nakanishi and Thibaud.

                This is an open-access article subject to a non-exclusive license between the authors and Frontiers Media SA, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and other Frontiers conditions are complied with.

                History
                : 10 August 2011
                : 03 November 2011
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 137, Pages: 12, Words: 11068
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Review Article

                Plant science & Botany
                plant,transcriptional and post-translational regulation,phosphate,transporter,uptake,phosphorus,pht1

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