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      Cost-effectiveness analysis of lamivudine, telbivudine, and entecavir in treatment of chronic hepatitis B with adefovir dipivoxil resistance

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          The purpose of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of lamivudine (LMV), telbivudine (LdT), and entecavir (ETV) in treatment of chronic hepatitis B with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) resistance. Two hundred and fifty-two patients were recruited and screened for resistance to ADV and randomly assigned into three groups: LMV + ADV, LdT + ADV, and ETV + ADV. The ratio of biochemical response, virological response, seroconversion of hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg)/hepatitis Be antibody (HBeAb), viral breakthrough, and the cost and effectiveness of treatments were analyzed. A comparison of the results of the ratio of biochemical response, virological response and seroconversion of HBeAg/HBeAb, showed no statistical difference between the three groups, with the economic cost of LMV + ADV the lowest, LdT + ADV the middle, and ETV + ADV the highest. The side effects of the three plans are all rare and tolerable. LMV + ADV is the optimal rescue strategy, and LdT + ADV the alternative selection in the economically less developed regions, while ETV + ADV was used in the economically developed regions.

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          Most cited references 29

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          EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: management of chronic hepatitis B.

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            Long-term efficacy and safety of adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B.

            Treatment of 171 patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) 10 mg over 48 weeks resulted in significant histological, virological, serological, and biochemical improvement compared with placebo. The long-term efficacy and safety of ADV in a subset of these patients was investigated for up to 5 years. Sixty-five patients given ADV 10 mg in year 1 elected to continue in a long-term safety and efficacy study (LTSES). At enrollment, the 65 LTSES patients were a median 34 years old, 83% male, 74% Asian, 23% Caucasian, median baseline serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA 8.45 log(10) copies/mL, and median baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 2.0 x upper limit of normal. At 5 years on study, the median changes from baseline in serum HBV DNA and ALT for the 41 patients still on ADV were 4.05 log(10) copies/mL and -50 U/L, respectively. HBeAg loss and seroconversion were observed in 58% and 48% of patients by end of study, respectively. Fifteen patients had baseline and end of follow-up liver biopsies; improvements in necroinflammation and fibrosis were seen in 67% and 60% of these patients, respectively. Adefovir resistance mutations A181V or N236T developed in 13 LTSES patients; the first observation was at study week 195. There were no serious adverse events related to ADV. Treatment with ADV beyond 48 weeks was well tolerated and produced long-term virological, biochemical, serological, and histological improvement.
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              Antiviral resistance and hepatitis B therapy.

              The management of chronic hepatitis B currently rests with long-term therapy using oral nucleoside analogs. The major limitation of long-term therapy is antiviral resistance. Antiviral resistance is due to the high rate of mutations that can occur during hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and the selection of these mutants due to a replication advantage in the presence of the antiviral agent. Indeed, high rates of antiviral resistance have been found with long-term use of lamivudine, in up to 76% of patients treated for 5 years or more. Rates of antiviral resistance are lower with adefovir therapy, approximately 30% at 5 years. Newer more potent nucleoside analogs (tenofovir and entecavir) have proven to have much lower rates of antiviral resistance (<1% after 2 years in treatment-naïve subjects), but the long-term rates of resistance have yet to be fully defined. The appearance of these viral mutations (genotypic resistance) is usually followed by rises in HBV DNA levels (virological breakthrough) and then by rises in serum aminotransferase levels (biochemical breakthrough). The appearance of antiviral resistance can be accompanied by a transient but occasionally severe exacerbation of the underlying liver disease which in some instances has led to acute liver failure. Combinations of nucleoside analogs may offer an approach to preventing antiviral resistance, but the efficacy and safety of this approach have yet to be shown. A future research priority is to identify new agents active against HBV that target different steps in the viral life-cycle and might provide effective means to circumvent the antiviral resistance of nucleoside analogs.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                02 June 2015
                : 9
                : 2839-2846
                [1 ]Department of Digestive Internal Medicine, Gannan Medical University Pingxiang Hospital, Pingxiang, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Digestive Internal Medicine, 307 Hospital of PLA, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
                [4 ]Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Laboratory of Shock, Department of Pathophysiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xianzhong Xiao, Department of Pathophysiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, 110 Xiangya Road, Changsha 410008, Hunan, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 731 2355019, Fax +86 731 2355019, Email csxianzhongxiaoxy@ 123456126.com
                © 2015 Wang et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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