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A history of late and very late stent thrombosis is not associated with increased activation of the contact system, a case control study

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      BackgroundThe pathophysiological pathways resulting in Late Stent Thrombosis (LST) remain uncertain. Findings from animal studies indicate a role of the intrinsic coagulation pathway in arterial thrombus formation, while clinical studies support an association with ischemic cardiovascular disease. It is currently unknown whether differences in the state of the contact system might contribute to the risk of LST or Very Late Stent Thrombosis (VLST). We assessed the relation between levels of several components involved in the contact system and a history of LST and VLST, termed (V)LST in a cohort of 20 patients as compared to a matched control group treated with PCI.Methods and ResultsActivated factor XII (FXIIa), FXII zymogen (FXII), FXIIa-C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inhibitor), Kallikrein-C1-inhibitor, FXIa-C1-inhibitor and FXIa-α1-antitrypsin (AT-inhibitor) complexes were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assy (ELISA) methodology.Cases and controls showed similar distributions in sex, age, baseline medications and stent type. Patients with a history of (V)LST had a significantly greater stent burden and a higher number of previous myocardial infarctions than the control patients.There were no significant between-group differences in the plasma levels of the components of the contact system.ConclusionIn a cohort of patients with a history of (V)LST, we did not observe differences in the activation state of the intrinsic coagulation system as compared to patients with a history of percutaneous coronary intervention without stent thrombosis.

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      Most cited references 36

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      Clinical end points in coronary stent trials: a case for standardized definitions.

      Although most clinical trials of coronary stents have measured nominally identical safety and effectiveness end points, differences in definitions and timing of assessment have created confusion in interpretation. The Academic Research Consortium is an informal collaboration between academic research organizations in the United States and Europe. Two meetings, in Washington, DC, in January 2006 and in Dublin, Ireland, in June 2006, sponsored by the Academic Research Consortium and including representatives of the US Food and Drug Administration and all device manufacturers who were working with the Food and Drug Administration on drug-eluting stent clinical trial programs, were focused on consensus end point definitions for drug-eluting stent evaluations. The effort was pursued with the objective to establish consistency among end point definitions and provide consensus recommendations. On the basis of considerations from historical legacy to key pathophysiological mechanisms and relevance to clinical interpretability, criteria for assessment of death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and stent thrombosis were developed. The broadly based consensus end point definitions in this document may be usefully applied or recognized for regulatory and clinical trial purposes. Although consensus criteria will inevitably include certain arbitrary features, consensus criteria for clinical end points provide consistency across studies that can facilitate the evaluation of safety and effectiveness of these devices.
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        Pathology of drug-eluting stents in humans: delayed healing and late thrombotic risk.

        This study examined human drug-eluting stents (DES) to determine the long-term effects of these stents on coronary arterial healing and identified mechanisms underlying late stent thrombosis (LST). Although DES reduce the need for repeat revascularization compared with bare-metal stents (BMS), data suggest the window of thrombotic risk for Cypher (Cordis Corp., Miami Lakes, Florida) and Taxus (Boston Scientific Corp., Natick, Massachusetts) DES extends far beyond that for BMS. From a registry of 40 autopsies of DES (68 stents), 23 DES cases of >30 days duration were compared with 25 matched autopsies of BMS implantation. Late stent thrombosis was defined as an acute thrombus within a stent >30 days old. Of 23 patients with DES >30 days old, 14 had evidence of LST. Cypher and Taxus DES showed greater delayed healing characterized by persistent fibrin deposition (fibrin score 2.3 +/- 1.1 vs. 0.9 +/- 0.8, p = 0.0001) and poorer endothelialization (55.8 +/- 26.5%) compared with BMS (89.8 +/- 20.9, p = 0.0001). Moreover, DES with LST showed more delayed healing compared with patent DES. In 5 of 14 patients suffering LST, antiplatelet therapy had been withdrawn. Additional procedural and pathologic risk factors for LST were: 1) local hypersensitivity reaction; 2) ostial and/or bifurcation stenting; 3) malapposition/incomplete apposition; 4) restenosis; and 5) strut penetration into a necrotic core. The Cypher and Taxus DES result in delayed arterial healing when compared with BMS of similar implant duration. The cause of DES LST is multifactorial with delayed healing in combination with other clinical and procedural risk factors playing a role.
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          Early and late coronary stent thrombosis of sirolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stents in routine clinical practice: data from a large two-institutional cohort study.

          Stent thrombosis is a safety concern associated with use of drug-eluting stents. Little is known about occurrence of stent thrombosis more than 1 year after implantation of such stents. Between April, 2002, and Dec, 2005, 8146 patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with sirolimus-eluting stents (SES; n=3823) or paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES; n=4323) at two academic hospitals. We assessed data from this group to ascertain the incidence, time course, and correlates of stent thrombosis, and the differences between early (0-30 days) and late (>30 days) stent thrombosis and between SES and PES. Angiographically documented stent thrombosis occurred in 152 patients (incidence density 1.3 per 100 person-years; cumulative incidence at 3 years 2.9%). Early stent thrombosis was noted in 91 (60%) patients, and late stent thrombosis in 61 (40%) patients. Late stent thrombosis occurred steadily at a constant rate of 0.6% per year up to 3 years after stent implantation. Incidence of early stent thrombosis was similar for SES (1.1%) and PES (1.3%), but late stent thrombosis was more frequent with PES (1.8%) than with SES (1.4%; p=0.031). At the time of stent thrombosis, dual antiplatelet therapy was being taken by 87% (early) and 23% (late) of patients (p<0.0001). Independent predictors of overall stent thrombosis were acute coronary syndrome at presentation (hazard ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.29-4.03) and diabetes (2.03, 1.07-3.83). Late stent thrombosis was encountered steadily with no evidence of diminution up to 3 years of follow-up. Early and late stent thrombosis were observed with SES and with PES. Acute coronary syndrome at presentation and diabetes were independent predictors of stent thrombosis.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
            [2 ]Department of Medicine, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway
            [3 ]Laboratory for Clinical Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
            [4 ]Axis-Shield, Dundee, UK
            Thromb J
            Thrombosis Journal
            BioMed Central
            15 April 2010
            : 8
            : 6
            Copyright ©2010 Pönitz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Original clinical investigation

            Cardiovascular Medicine


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