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      Evidence and Suggested Therapeutic Approach in Psoriasis of Difficult-to-treat Areas: Palmoplantar Psoriasis, Nail Psoriasis, Scalp Psoriasis, and Intertriginous Psoriasis

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          Abstract

          Psoriasis is resistant to treatment and it shows frequent relapse; systemic treatment is often associated with toxicities, and long-term safety data are lacking for most of the newer drugs like biologics. Moreover, some body areas such as hands, feet, intertriginous areas, scalp, and nails are even more resistant. Frequently, systemic treatments are necessary considering the higher psychological impact on the patient. There is a lack of agreement on the best therapeutic modalities in the management of psoriasis involving difficult-to-treat locations. At present, there are no Indian guidelines for these conditions. Available literature has been reviewed extensively on the treatment of psoriasis involving difficult-to-treat locations; level of evidence has been evaluated as per the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 guideline, and therapeutic suggestions have been developed. Best care has been employed to consider socioeconomic, cultural, genetic, and ethnic factors to prepare a therapeutic suggestion that is appropriate and logical to be used among Indian population and people of similar ethnic and socioeconomic background.

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          Most cited references 85

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          Infliximab induction and maintenance therapy for moderate-to-severe psoriasis: a phase III, multicentre, double-blind trial.

          Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is thought to play a part in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of continuous treatment with infliximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to and neutralises the activity of TNFalpha, in patients with psoriasis. In this phase III, multicentre, double-blind trial, 378 patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis were allocated in a 4:1 ratio to receive infusions of either infliximab 5 mg/kg or placebo at weeks 0, 2, and 6, then every 8 weeks to week 46. At week 24, placebo-treated patients crossed over to infliximab treatment. Skin and nail signs of psoriasis were assessed using the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and nail psoriasis severity index (NAPSI), respectively. The primary endpoint, analysed on an intention-to-treat-basis, was the proportion of patients achieving at least a 75% improvement in PASI from baseline to week 10. At week 10, 80% (242/301) of patients treated with infliximab achieved at least a 75% improvement from their baseline PASI (PASI 75) and 57% (172/301) achieved at least a 90% improvement (PASI 90), compared with 3% and 1% in the placebo group, respectively (p<0.0001). At week 24, PASI 75 (82% for infliximab vs 4% for placebo) and PASI 90 (58%vs 1%) were maintained (p<0.0001). At week 50, 61% achieved PASI 75 and 45% achieved PASI 90 in the infliximab group. Infliximab was generally well tolerated in most patients. Infliximab is effective in both an induction and maintenance regimen for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis, with a high percentage of patients achieving sustained PASI 75 and PASI 90 improvement through 1 year.
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            Golimumab, a new human tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody, administered every four weeks as a subcutaneous injection in psoriatic arthritis: Twenty-four-week efficacy and safety results of a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

            To assess the efficacy and safety of golimumab in patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Adult patients with PsA who had at least 3 swollen and 3 tender joints and active psoriasis were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous injections of placebo (n = 113), golimumab 50 mg (n = 146), or golimumab 100 mg (n = 146) every 4 weeks through week 20. Efficacy assessments through week 24 included the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR20), the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) in patients in whom at least 3% of the body surface area was affected by psoriasis at baseline, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), the disability index of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI), the physician's global assessment of psoriatic nail disease, and enthesitis (using the PsA-modified Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score [MASES] index). At week 14, 48% of all patients receiving golimumab, 51% of patients receiving golimumab 50 mg, and 45% of patients receiving golimumab 100 mg achieved an ACR20 response (the primary end point), compared with 9% of patients receiving placebo (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Among the 74% of patients in whom at least 3% of the body surface area was affected by psoriasis at baseline, 40% of those in the golimumab 50 mg group and 58% of those in the golimumab 100 mg group had at least 75% improvement in the PASI at week 14 (major secondary end point), compared with 3% of placebo-treated patients (P < 0.001 for both doses). Significant improvement was observed for other major secondary end points (the HAQ and the SF-36), the NAPSI, the physician's global assessment of psoriatric nail disease, and the PsA-modified MASES index in each golimumab group compared with placebo. This efficacy was maintained through week 24. Golimumab was generally well tolerated. Treatment with golimumab at doses of 50 mg and 100 mg significantly improved active PsA and associated skin and nail psoriasis through week 24.
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              Effect of certolizumab pegol on signs and symptoms in patients with psoriatic arthritis: 24-week results of a Phase 3 double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study (RAPID-PsA)

              Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) after 24 weeks in RAPID-PsA (NCT01087788), an ongoing Phase 3 trial in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods Patients were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo, 200 mg CZP every 2 weeks (Q2W) or 400 mg CZP every 4 weeks (Q4W). Patients could have had exposure to one previous tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy. Primary endpoints were American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 12 and modified Total Sharp Score change from baseline at week 24. Secondary endpoints included; Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria (PsARC) score, Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, Leeds Enthesitis Index, Leeds Dactylitis Index, and Modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index. Results Of 409 patients randomised, 368 completed 24 weeks of treatment. ACR20 response was significantly greater in CZP 200 mg Q2W and 400 mg Q4W-treated patients than placebo (58.0% and 51.9% vs 24.3% (p<0.001)) at week 12, with improvements observed by week 1. There was a statistically significant improvement in physical function from baseline, measured by HAQ-DI in CZP patients compared with placebo (−0.50 vs −0.19, p<0.001) and more patients treated with CZP 200 mg Q2W and CZP 400 mg achieved an improvement in PsARC at week 24 than placebo (78.3% and 77.0% vs 33.1% (p<0.001)). Sustained improvements were observed in psoriatic skin involvement, enthesitis, dactylitis and nail disease. Higher ACR20 response with CZP was independent of prior TNF inhibitor exposure. No new safety signals were observed. Conclusions Rapid improvements in the signs and symptoms of PsA, including joints, skin, enthesitis, dactylitis and nail disease were observed across both CZP dosing regimens.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Dermatol
                Indian J Dermatol
                IJD
                Indian Journal of Dermatology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0019-5154
                1998-3611
                Mar-Apr 2017
                : 62
                : 2
                : 113-122
                IJD-62-113
                10.4103/ijd.IJD_539_16
                5363132
                Copyright: © 2017 Indian Journal of Dermatology

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Dermatology

                sole, scalp, psoriasis, palm, nail, intertriginous, flexure, difficult-to-treat area, acral

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