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      Soft-tissue and osseous impingement syndromes of the ankle: role of imaging in diagnosis and management.

      Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc

      Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, therapy, diagnosis, Joint Diseases, Humans, Diagnosis, Differential, Athletic Injuries, Ankle Joint, Ankle Injuries

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          Soft-tissue and osseous impingement syndromes of the ankle can be an important cause of chronic pain, particularly in the professional athlete. The main impingement syndromes are anterolateral, anterior, anteromedial, and posterior impingement. These conditions arise from initial ankle injuries, which, in the subacute or chronic situation, lead to development of abnormal osseous and soft-tissue thickening within the ankle joint. The relative contributions of the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities are variable, but whatever component is dominant there is physical impingement and painful limitation of ankle movement. Conventional radiography is usually the first imaging technique performed and allows assessment of any potential bone abnormality, particularly in anterior and posterior impingement. Computed tomography (CT) and isotope bone scanning have been largely superseded by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, but the accuracy and role of MR imaging in assessment of possible ankle impingement have not been clearly established. MR imaging can demonstrate osseous and soft-tissue edema in anterior or posterior impingement. Studies of conventional MR imaging have produced conflicting sensitivities and specificities in assessment of anterolateral impingement. CT and MR arthrographic techniques allow the most accurate assessment of the capsular recesses, albeit with important limitations in diagnosis of clinical impingement syndromes. Copyright RSNA, 2002

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