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      lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 Suppresses the Inflammation and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through IκBa in Intimal Hyperplasia

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          Abstract

          Inflammation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the key events in intimal hyperplasia. This study aimed to explore the mechanism by which long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) KCNQ1OT1 affects VSMC inflammation and proliferation in this context. A vein graft (VG) model was established in mice to introduce intimal hyperplasia. Isolated normal VSMCs were induced with platelet-derived growth factor type BB (PDGF-BB), and the cell proliferation, migration, and secretion of inflammatory factors were determined. The results showed that KCNQ1OT1 was downregulated in the VSMCs from mice with intimal hyperplasia and in the PDGF-BB-treated VSMCs, and such downregulation of KCNQ1OT1 resulted from the increased methylation level in the KCNQ1OT1 promoter. Overexpressing KCNQ1OT1 suppressed PDFG-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, migration, and secretion of inflammatory factors. In VSMCs, KCNQ1OT1 bound to the nuclear transcription factor kappa Ba (IκBa) protein and increased the cellular IκBa level by reducing phosphorylation and promoting ubiquitination of the IκBa protein. Meanwhile, KCNQ1OT1 promoted the expression of IκBa by sponging miR-221. The effects of KCNQ1OT1 knockdown on promoting VSMC proliferation, migration, and secretion of inflammatory factors were abolished by IκBa overexpression. The roles of KCNQ1OT1 in reducing the intimal area and inhibiting IκBa expression were proved in the VG mouse model after KCNQ1OT1 overexpression. In conclusion, KCNQ1OT1 attenuated intimal hyperplasia by suppressing the inflammation and proliferation of VSMCs, in which the mechanism upregulated IκBa expression by binding to the IκBa protein and sponging miR-221.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Signaling via the NFκB system.

          The nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) family of transcription factors is a key regulator of immune development, immune responses, inflammation, and cancer. The NFκB signaling system (defined by the interactions between NFκB dimers, IκB regulators, and IKK complexes) is responsive to a number of stimuli, and upon ligand-receptor engagement, distinct cellular outcomes, appropriate to the specific signal received, are set into motion. After almost three decades of study, many signaling mechanisms are well understood, rendering them amenable to mathematical modeling, which can reveal deeper insights about the regulatory design principles. While other reviews have focused on upstream, receptor proximal signaling (Hayden MS, Ghosh S. Signaling to NF-κB. Genes Dev 2004, 18:2195-2224; Verstrepen L, Bekaert T, Chau TL, Tavernier J, Chariot A, Beyaert R. TLR-4, IL-1R and TNF-R signaling to NF-κB: variations on a common theme. Cell Mol Life Sci 2008, 65:2964-2978), and advances through computational modeling (Basak S, Behar M, Hoffmann A. Lessons from mathematically modeling the NF-κB pathway. Immunol Rev 2012, 246:221-238; Williams R, Timmis J, Qwarnstrom E. Computational models of the NF-KB signalling pathway. Computation 2014, 2:131), in this review we aim to summarize the current understanding of the NFκB signaling system itself, the molecular mechanisms, and systems properties that are key to its diverse biological functions, and we discuss remaining questions in the field. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:227-241. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1331 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
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            Genetic variants at the 9p21 locus contribute to atherosclerosis through modulation of ANRIL and CDKN2A/B.

            Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at the chromosome 9p21 locus. The CVD-associated region is adjacent to the two cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKN)2A and 2B and the last exons of the non-coding RNA, ANRIL. It is still not clear which of or how these transcripts are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We assessed the hypothesis that 9p21 locus polymorphisms influence the expression of the transcripts in the region (ANRIL, CDKN2A/B) and that these transcripts contribute to atherogenesis through the modulation of proliferation in VSMC. We genotyped 18 SNPs (r(2) 0.05) across the region of interest: CDKN2A/B and ANRIL, encompassing the CVD-associated region. RNA and DNA were extracted from the blood of 57 volunteers (69-72 years old). Carotid ultrasound was performed in 56 subjects. CDKN2A/B and ANRIL (exons 1-2 and 17-18) expression was measured employing RT-PCR. Gene expression and cell growth were evaluated in cultured VSMC after the siRNA-mediated knock-down of ANRIL. The risk alleles for atherosclerosis-related phenotypes were consistently associated with a lower expression of ANRIL when evaluating exons 1-2. Common carotid artery stenosis was associated with a significantly lower (P<0.01) expression of ANRIL (exons 1-2). ANRIL knock-down in VSMC caused significant variation in expression of CDKN2A/B (P<0.05) and reduction of cell growth (P<0.05) in vitro. Disease-associated SNPs at the 9p21 locus predominantly affect the expression of ANRIL. Overall, our results suggest that several CVD-associated SNPs in the 9p21 locus affect the expression of ANRIL, which, in turn modulate cell growth, possibly via CDKN2A/B regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Kcnq1ot1 noncoding RNA mediates transcriptional gene silencing by interacting with Dnmt1.

              A long noncoding RNA, Kcnq1ot1, regulates the expression of both ubiquitously and tissue-specific imprinted genes within the Kcnq1 domain. However, the functional sequences of the Kcnq1ot1 RNA that mediate lineage-specific imprinting are unknown. Here, we have generated a knockout mouse with a deletion encompassing an 890-bp silencing domain (Delta890) downstream of the Kcnq1ot1 promoter. Maternal transmission of the Delta890 allele has no effect on imprinting, whereas paternal inheritance of the deletion leads to selective relaxation of the imprinting of ubiquitously imprinted genes to a variable extent in a tissue-specific manner. Interestingly, the deletion affects DNA methylation at somatically acquired differentially methylated regions (DMRs), but does not affect the histone modifications of the ubiquitously imprinted genes. Importantly, we found that Kcnq1ot1 recruits Dnmt1 to somatic DMRs by interacting with Dnmt1, and that this interaction was significantly reduced in the Delta890 mice. Thus, the ubiquitous and placental-specific imprinting of genes within the Kcnq1 domain might be mediated by distinct mechanisms, and Kcnq1ot1 RNA might mediate the silencing of ubiquitously imprinted genes by maintaining allele-specific methylation through its interactions with Dnmt1.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Mol Ther Nucleic Acids
                Mol Ther Nucleic Acids
                Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
                American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy
                2162-2531
                04 February 2020
                05 June 2020
                04 February 2020
                : 20
                : 62-72
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, the Key Lab of Cardiovascular Disease of Wenzhou, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325015, China
                [2 ]Department of Vascular Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China
                [3 ]Division of Oncology, Hepatobiliary and Transplant Surgery, University Medical Center Rostock, Rostock 18055, Germany
                [4 ]Department of Vascular Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325015, China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author: Xiang-tao Zheng, MD, Department of Vascular Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. Wenzhou 325015, China. vaszhengxiangtao@ 123456126.com
                [5]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                S2162-2531(20)30067-6
                10.1016/j.omtn.2020.01.032
                7058709
                32146419
                b8f3f050-f7a3-4847-884c-202200f5ad1d
                © 2020 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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