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      Alimentary Tract Bacteria Isolated and Identified with API-20E and Molecular Cloning Techniques from Australian Tropical Fruit Flies, Bactrocera cacuminata and B. tryoni


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          Bacteria were isolated from the crop and midgut of field collected Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Two methods were used, firstly isolation onto two types of bacteriological culture media (PYEA and TSA) and identification using the API-20E diagnostic kit, and secondly, analysis of samples using the 16S rRNA gene molecular diagnostic method. Using the API-20E method, 10 genera and 17 species of bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae were identified from cultures growing on the nutrient agar. The dominant species in both the crop and midgut were Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca. Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp ozaenae and Serratia marcescens were isolated from B. tryoni only. Using the molecular cloning technique that is based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, five bacteria classes were dignosed — Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Delta- Proteobacteria and Firmicutes — including five families, Leuconostocaceae, Enterococcaceae, Acetobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes were found mainly in the crop while the Gammaproteobacteria, especially the family Enterobacteriaceae, was dominant in the midgut. This paper presents results from the first known application of molecular cloning techniques to study bacteria within tephritid species and the first record of Firmicutes bacteria in these flies.

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          The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) Classifier, a naïve Bayesian classifier, can rapidly and accurately classify bacterial 16S rRNA sequences into the new higher-order taxonomy proposed in Bergey's Taxonomic Outline of the Prokaryotes (2nd ed., release 5.0, Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 2004). It provides taxonomic assignments from domain to genus, with confidence estimates for each assignment. The majority of classifications (98%) were of high estimated confidence (> or = 95%) and high accuracy (98%). In addition to being tested with the corpus of 5,014 type strain sequences from Bergey's outline, the RDP Classifier was tested with a corpus of 23,095 rRNA sequences as assigned by the NCBI into their alternative higher-order taxonomy. The results from leave-one-out testing on both corpora show that the overall accuracies at all levels of confidence for near-full-length and 400-base segments were 89% or above down to the genus level, and the majority of the classification errors appear to be due to anomalies in the current taxonomies. For shorter rRNA segments, such as those that might be generated by pyrosequencing, the error rate varied greatly over the length of the 16S rRNA gene, with segments around the V2 and V4 variable regions giving the lowest error rates. The RDP Classifier is suitable both for the analysis of single rRNA sequences and for the analysis of libraries of thousands of sequences. Another related tool, RDP Library Compare, was developed to facilitate microbial-community comparison based on 16S rRNA gene sequence libraries. It combines the RDP Classifier with a statistical test to flag taxa differentially represented between samples. The RDP Classifier and RDP Library Compare are available online at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/.
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            The diversity of the Insecta is reflected in the large and varied microbial communities inhabiting the gut. Studies, particularly with termites and cockroaches, have focused on the nutritional contributions of gut bacteria in insects living on suboptimal diets. The indigenous gut bacteria, however, also play a role in withstanding the colonization of the gut by non-indigenous species including pathogens. Gut bacterial consortia adapt by the transfer of plasmids and transconjugation between bacterial strains, and some insect species provide ideal conditions for bacterial conjugation, which suggests that the gut is a "hot spot" for gene transfer. Genomic analysis provides new avenues for the study of the gut microbial community and will reveal the molecular foundations of the relationships between the insect and its microbiome. In this review the intestinal bacteria is discussed in the context of developing our understanding of symbiotic relationships, of multitrophic interactions between insects and plant or animal host, and in developing new strategies for controlling insect pests.
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              Effects of growth medium, inoculum size, and incubation time on culturability and isolation of soil bacteria.

              Soils are inhabited by many bacteria from phylogenetic groups that are poorly studied because representatives are rarely isolated in cultivation studies. Part of the reason for the failure to cultivate these bacteria is the low frequency with which bacterial cells in soil form visible colonies when inoculated onto standard microbiological media, resulting in low viable counts. We investigated the effects of three factors on viable counts, assessed as numbers of CFU on solid media, and on the phylogenetic groups to which the isolated colony-forming bacteria belong. These factors were inoculum size, growth medium, and incubation time. Decreasing the inoculum size resulted in significant increases in the viable count but did not appear to affect colony formation by members of rarely isolated groups. Some media that are traditionally used for soil microbiological studies returned low viable counts and did not result in the isolation of members of rarely isolated groups. Newly developed media, in contrast, resulted in high viable counts and in the isolation of many members of rarely isolated groups, regardless of the inoculum size. Increased incubation times of up to 3 months allowed the development of visible colonies of members of rarely isolated groups in conjunction with the use of appropriate media. Once isolated, pure cultures of members of rarely isolated groups took longer to form visible colonies than did members of commonly isolated groups. Using these new media and extended incubation times, we were able to isolate many members of the phyla Acidobacteria (subdivisions 1, 2, 3, and 4), Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes (including representatives of the previously uncultured WPS-1 lineage) as well as members of the subclasses Rubrobacteridae and Acidimicrobidae of the phylum Actinobacteria.

                Author and article information

                J Insect Sci
                J. Insect Sci
                Journal of Insect Science
                University of Wisconsin Library
                12 August 2010
                : 10
                : 131
                [ 1 ]Institute of Agricultural Technology, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, 80161, Thailand
                [ 2 ]Center for Agricultural Biotechnology (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE), Thailand
                [ 3 ]International Centre for the Management of Pest Fruit Flies, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan campus, Nathan, Queensland, 4111, Australia
                [ 4 ]Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan campus, Nathan, Queensland, 4111, Australia
                Author notes
                [*] [ b* ] d.drew@ 123456griffith.edu.au , [ * ]Corresponding author

                Associate Editor: Allen Cohen was editor of this paper.

                © 2010

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 23 February 2009
                : 10 October 2009
                Page count
                Pages: 16

                lactic acid bacteria,16s rrna gene,enterobacteriaceae,bactrocera cacuminata,bactrocera tryoni,pcr


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