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      The Shaker Type Potassium Channel, GORK, Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling in Arabidopsis

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          Evolution of adaptive mechanisms to abiotic stress is essential for plant growth and development. Plants adapt to stress conditions by activating the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway. It has been suggested that the ABA receptor, clade A protein phosphatase, SnRK2 type kinase, and SLAC1 anion channel are important components of the ABA signaling pathway. In this study, we report that the shaker type potassium (K +) channel, GORK, modulates plant responses to ABA and abiotic stresses. Our results indicate that the full length of PP2CA is needed to interact with the GORK C-terminal region. We identified a loss of function allele in gork that displayed ABA-hyposensitive phenotype. gork and pp2ca mutants showed opposite responses to ABA in seed germination and seedling growth. Additionally, gork mutant was tolerant to the NaCl and mannitol treatments, whereas pp2ca mutant was sensitive to the NaCl and mannitol treatments. Thus, our results indicate that GORK enhances the sensitivity to ABA and negatively regulates the mechanisms involved in high salinity and osmotic stresses via PP2CA-mediated signals.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Abscisic acid inhibits type 2C protein phosphatases via the PYR/PYL family of START proteins.

          Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are vitally involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Here, we show that a synthetic growth inhibitor called pyrabactin functions as a selective ABA agonist. Pyrabactin acts through PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE 1 (PYR1), the founding member of a family of START proteins called PYR/PYLs, which are necessary for both pyrabactin and ABA signaling in vivo. We show that ABA binds to PYR1, which in turn binds to and inhibits PP2Cs. We conclude that PYR/PYLs are ABA receptors functioning at the apex of a negative regulatory pathway that controls ABA signaling by inhibiting PP2Cs. Our results illustrate the power of the chemical genetic approach for sidestepping genetic redundancy.
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            Regulators of PP2C phosphatase activity function as abscisic acid sensors.

            The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) acts as a developmental signal and as an integrator of environmental cues such as drought and cold. Key players in ABA signal transduction include the type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) ABI1 and ABI2, which act by negatively regulating ABA responses. In this study, we identify interactors of ABI1 and ABI2 which we have named regulatory components of ABA receptor (RCARs). In Arabidopsis, RCARs belong to a family with 14 members that share structural similarity with class 10 pathogen-related proteins. RCAR1 was shown to bind ABA, to mediate ABA-dependent inactivation of ABI1 or ABI2 in vitro, and to antagonize PP2C action in planta. Other RCARs also mediated ABA-dependent regulation of ABI1 and ABI2, consistent with a combinatorial assembly of receptor complexes.
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              Transformation of intact yeast cells treated with alkali cations.

               H Ito,  K Murata,  A Kimura (1982)
              Intact yeast cells treated with alkali cations took up plasmid DNA. Li+, Cs+, Rb+, K+, and Na+ were effective in inducing competence. Conditions for the transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D13-1A with plasmid YRp7 were studied in detail with CsCl. The optimum incubation time was 1 h, and the optimum cell concentration was 5 x 10(7) cells per ml. The optimum concentration of Cs+ was 1.0 M. Transformation efficiency increased with increasing concentrations of plasmid DNA. Polyethylene glycol was absolutely required. Heat pulse and various polyamines or basic proteins stimulated the uptake of plasmid DNA. Besides circular DNA, linear plasmid DNA was also taken up by Cs+-treated yeast cells, although the uptake efficiency was considerably reduced. The transformation efficiency with Cs+ or Li+ was comparable with that of conventional protoplast methods for a plasmid containing ars1, although not for plasmids containing a 2 microns origin replication.

                Author and article information

                Plant Pathol J
                Plant Pathol. J
                The Plant Pathology Journal
                Korean Society of Plant Pathology
                December 2019
                12 December 2019
                : 35
                : 6
                : 684-691
                [1 ]Department of Life Science (BK21 Program), Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
                [2 ]Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Plus Program), Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Plant Medicals, Andong National University, Andong 36729, Korea
                [4 ]Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Hyong Woo Choi, Phone) +82-54-820-5509, FAX) +82-54-820-6320. Sheng Luan, Phone) +1-510-642-6306, FAX) +1-510-642-4995. Sung Chul Lee, Phone) +82-2-820-5207, FAX) +82-2-825-5206

                Handling Editor : Jang, Cheol Seong

                © The Korean Society of Plant Pathology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article

                abscisic acid, high salinity, osmotic stress, pp2ca


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