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      Moutan Cortex Radicis inhibits the nigrostriatal damage in a 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson’s disease model

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          The traditionally used oriental herbal medicine Moutan Cortex Radicis [MCR; Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrews (Paeo-niaceae)] exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, and analgesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of differently fractioned MCR extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced Parkinson’s disease model and neuro- blastoma B65 cells. Ethanol-extracted MCR was fractionated by n-hexane, butanol, and distilled water. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated first with 20 µg of 6-OHDA, followed by three MCR extract fractions (100 or 200 mg·kg −1) for 14 consecutive days. In the behavioral rotation experiment, the MCR extract-treated groups showed significantly decreased number of net turns compared with the 6-OHDA control group. The three fractions also significantly inhibited the reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta following 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. Western blotting analysis revealed significantly reduced tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta in the 6-OHDA-treated group, which was significantly inhibited by the n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR. B65 cells were exposed to the extract fractions for 24 h prior to addition of 6-OHDA for 30 min; treatment with n-hexane or distilled water fractions of MCR reduced apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA neurotoxicity and inhibited nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression. These results showed that n-hexane- and distilled water-fractioned MCR extracts inhibited 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing nitric oxide production and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, suggesting that MCR extracts could serve as a novel candidate treatment for the patients with Parkinson's disease.

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          Dose-dependent lesions of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway induced by intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine.

          Animal models with partial lesions of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway may be useful for developing neuroprotective and neurotrophic therapies for Parkinson's disease. To develop such a model, different doses of 6-hydroxydopamine (0.0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 micrograms/microliters in 3.5 microliters of saline) were unilaterally injected into the striatum of rats. Animals that received 1.25 to 5.0 micrograms/microliters 6-hydroxydopamine displayed dose-dependent amphetamine and apomorphine-induced circling. 6-Hydroxydopamine also caused dose-dependent reductions in [3H]mazindol-labeled dopamine uptake sites in the lesioned striatum and ipsilateral substantia nigra pars compacta (up to 93% versus contralateral binding), with smaller losses in the nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and ventral tegmental area. In the substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area, the number of Nissl-stained neurons decreases in parallel with the reduction in [3H]mazindol binding. The reduction in [3H]mazindol binding in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, and the reduction in [3H]mazindol binding and in the number of Nissl-stained neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area is stable for up to 12 weeks after the lesion. Macroscopically, forebrain coronal sections showed normal morphology, except for rats receiving 5.0 micrograms/microliters 6-hydroxydopamine in which striatal cross-sectional area was reduced, suggesting that this high dose non-specifically damages intrinsic striatal neurons. Nissl-stained sections revealed an area of neuronal loss and intense gliosis centered around the needle track, which increased in size with the dose of neurotoxin. Striatal [3H]sulpiride binding was increased by 2.5 micrograms/microliters and 5.0 micrograms/microliters 6-hydroxydopamine, suggesting up-regulation of dopamine D2 receptors. Striatal binding of [3H]CGS 21680-labeled adenosine A2a receptors, but not of [3H]SCH 23390-labeled dopamine D1 receptors, was reduced at the highest dose, suggesting preservation of the striatal intrinsic neurons with the lower doses. This study indicates that intrastriatal injection of different doses of 6-hydroxydopamine can be used to cause increasing amounts of dopamine denervation, which could model Parkinson's disease of varying degrees of severity. Injecting 3.5 microliters of 2.5 micrograms/microliters 6-hydroxydopamine appears to be particularly useful as a general model of early Parkinson's disease, since it induces a lesion characterized by robust drug-induced rotation, changes in binding consistent with approximately 70% dopamine denervation, approximately 19% dopamine D22 receptor up-regulation, negligible intrinsic striatal damage and stability for at least 12 weeks. This study outlines a technique for inducing partial lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway in rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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            Role of neuronal nitric oxide in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

            1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) causes nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway damage similar to that observed in Parkinson disease (PD). To study the role of NO radical in MPTP-induced neurotoxicity, we injected MPTP into mice in which nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was inhibited by 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. 7-NI dramatically protected MPTP-injected mice against indices of severe injury to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, including reduction in striatal dopamine contents, decreases in numbers of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, and numerous silver-stained degenerating nigral neurons. The resistance of 7-NI-injected mice to MPTP is not due to alterations in striatal pharmacokinetics or content of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), the active metabolite of MPTP. To study specifically the role of neuronal NOS (nNOS), MPTP was administered to mutant mice lacking the nNOS gene. Mutant mice are significantly more resistant to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity compared with wild-type littermates. These results indicate that neuronally derived NO mediates, in part, MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The similarity between the MPTP model and PD raises the possibility that NO may play a significant role in the etiology of PD.
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              Paeonol attenuates microglia-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity in rat primary microglia and cortical neurons.

              Inflammation and oxidative stress play important roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as stroke, traumatic injury, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer disease. Paeonol, a natural compound extracted from Moutan cortex, is a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of paeonol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in rat primary microglia and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative damage in cortical neurons. In LPS-treated microglia, paeonol attenuated the overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, leading to the decrease in nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production, respectively. Paeonol also suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase. In addition, LPS-stimulated NADPH oxidase activation and reactive oxygen species production were attenuated by paeonol. Paeonol-induced upregulation of heme oxygenase 1 was also observed. Moreover, paeonol attenuated LPS-treated microglia culture medium-induced neuron cells death. Posttreatment with paeonol also reduced inflammatory responses in LPS-activated microglia and increased cell viability in LPS-treated microglia culture medium-treated neurons. Furthermore, in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated cortical neurons, paeonol not only decreased reactive oxygen species production but also increased cell viability, superoxide dismutase activity, and the antiapoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 expression. Taken together, the present results suggest that paeonol might be a potential neuroprotective agent via inhibiting microglia-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage.

                Author and article information

                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                20 July 2018
                : 16
                : 7
                : 490-498
                1Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Ilsong Institute of Life Science, Hallym University, Anyang 14066, Republic of Korea
                2Research Group of Pain and Neuroscience, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, East-West Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea
                3Department of Applied Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea
                4Department of Meridian and Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Sang Ji University, Wonju 26339, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: Sabina Lim, Tel: 82-2-961-0324, Fax: 82-2-961-7831, E-mail: lims@ 123456khu.ac.kr

                ΔThese authors contributed equally to this work.

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Copyright © 2018 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funded by: Korean government (MSIP)
                Award ID: 2014R1A2A1A11052795
                This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. 2014R1A2A1A11052795).


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