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      The mechanism of microglia-mediated immune inflammation in ischemic stroke and the role of natural botanical components in regulating microglia: A review

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          Abstract

          Ischemic stroke (IS) is one of the most fatal diseases. Neuroimmunity, inflammation, and oxidative stress play important roles in various complex mechanisms of IS. In particular, the early proinflammatory response resulting from the overactivation of resident microglia and the infiltration of circulating monocytes and macrophages in the brain after cerebral ischemia leads to secondary brain injury. Microglia are innate immune cells in the brain that constantly monitor the brain microenvironment under normal conditions. Once ischemia occurs, microglia are activated to produce dual effects of neurotoxicity and neuroprotection, and the balance of the two effects determines the fate of damaged neurons. The activation of microglia is defined as the classical activation (M1 type) or alternative activation (M2 type). M1 type microglia secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic mediators to exacerbate neuronal damage, while M2 type microglia promote a repairing anti-inflammatory response. Fine regulation of M1/M2 microglial activation to minimize damage and maximize protection has important therapeutic value. This review focuses on the interaction between M1/M2 microglia and other immune cells involved in the regulation of IS phenotypic characteristics, and the mechanism of natural plant components regulating microglia after IS, providing novel candidate drugs for regulating microglial balance and IS drug development.

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          Global, regional, and national burden of stroke and its risk factors, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

          Summary Background Regularly updated data on stroke and its pathological types, including data on their incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, risk factors, and epidemiological trends, are important for evidence-based stroke care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) aims to provide a standardised and comprehensive measurement of these metrics at global, regional, and national levels. Methods We applied GBD 2019 analytical tools to calculate stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of DALYs (with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals [UIs]) associated with 19 risk factors, for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. These estimates were provided for ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, and all strokes combined, and stratified by sex, age group, and World Bank country income level. Findings In 2019, there were 12·2 million (95% UI 11·0–13·6) incident cases of stroke, 101 million (93·2–111) prevalent cases of stroke, 143 million (133–153) DALYs due to stroke, and 6·55 million (6·00–7·02) deaths from stroke. Globally, stroke remained the second-leading cause of death (11·6% [10·8–12·2] of total deaths) and the third-leading cause of death and disability combined (5·7% [5·1–6·2] of total DALYs) in 2019. From 1990 to 2019, the absolute number of incident strokes increased by 70·0% (67·0–73·0), prevalent strokes increased by 85·0% (83·0–88·0), deaths from stroke increased by 43·0% (31·0–55·0), and DALYs due to stroke increased by 32·0% (22·0–42·0). During the same period, age-standardised rates of stroke incidence decreased by 17·0% (15·0–18·0), mortality decreased by 36·0% (31·0–42·0), prevalence decreased by 6·0% (5·0–7·0), and DALYs decreased by 36·0% (31·0–42·0). However, among people younger than 70 years, prevalence rates increased by 22·0% (21·0–24·0) and incidence rates increased by 15·0% (12·0–18·0). In 2019, the age-standardised stroke-related mortality rate was 3·6 (3·5–3·8) times higher in the World Bank low-income group than in the World Bank high-income group, and the age-standardised stroke-related DALY rate was 3·7 (3·5–3·9) times higher in the low-income group than the high-income group. Ischaemic stroke constituted 62·4% of all incident strokes in 2019 (7·63 million [6·57–8·96]), while intracerebral haemorrhage constituted 27·9% (3·41 million [2·97–3·91]) and subarachnoid haemorrhage constituted 9·7% (1·18 million [1·01–1·39]). In 2019, the five leading risk factors for stroke were high systolic blood pressure (contributing to 79·6 million [67·7–90·8] DALYs or 55·5% [48·2–62·0] of total stroke DALYs), high body-mass index (34·9 million [22·3–48·6] DALYs or 24·3% [15·7–33·2]), high fasting plasma glucose (28·9 million [19·8–41·5] DALYs or 20·2% [13·8–29·1]), ambient particulate matter pollution (28·7 million [23·4–33·4] DALYs or 20·1% [16·6–23·0]), and smoking (25·3 million [22·6–28·2] DALYs or 17·6% [16·4–19·0]). Interpretation The annual number of strokes and deaths due to stroke increased substantially from 1990 to 2019, despite substantial reductions in age-standardised rates, particularly among people older than 70 years. The highest age-standardised stroke-related mortality and DALY rates were in the World Bank low-income group. The fastest-growing risk factor for stroke between 1990 and 2019 was high body-mass index. Without urgent implementation of effective primary prevention strategies, the stroke burden will probably continue to grow across the world, particularly in low-income countries. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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            Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo.

            Microglial cells represent the immune system of the mammalian brain and therefore are critically involved in various injuries and diseases. Little is known about their role in the healthy brain and their immediate reaction to brain damage. By using in vivo two-photon imaging in neocortex, we found that microglial cells are highly active in their presumed resting state, continually surveying their microenvironment with extremely motile processes and protrusions. Furthermore, blood-brain barrier disruption provoked immediate and focal activation of microglia, switching their behavior from patroling to shielding of the injured site. Microglia thus are busy and vigilant housekeepers in the adult brain.
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              Neuroinflammation and microglial activation in Alzheimer disease: where do we go from here?

              Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease, estimated to contribute 60-70% of all cases of dementia worldwide. According to the prevailing amyloid cascade hypothesis, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain is the initiating event in AD, although evidence is accumulating that this hypothesis is insufficient to explain many aspects of AD pathogenesis. The discovery of increased levels of inflammatory markers in patients with AD and the identification of AD risk genes associated with innate immune functions suggest that neuroinflammation has a prominent role in the pathogenesis of AD. In this Review, we discuss the interrelationships between neuroinflammation and amyloid and tau pathologies as well as the effect of neuroinflammation on the disease trajectory in AD. We specifically focus on microglia as major players in neuroinflammation and discuss the spatial and temporal variations in microglial phenotypes that are observed under different conditions. We also consider how these cells could be modulated as a therapeutic strategy for AD.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                02 February 2023
                2022
                : 13
                : 1047550
                Affiliations
                [1] 1 The First Hospital of Hunan University of Chinese Medicine , Changsha, Hunan, China
                [2] 2 Institute of Metabolic Diseases, Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences , Beijing, China
                [3] 3 Key Laboratory of Hunan Province for Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine on Prevention and Treatment of Cardio-Cerebral Diseases, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine , Changsha, China
                [4] 4 Fudan University , Shanghai, China
                [5] 5 Department of Rheumatology, The First People's Hospital Changde City, Changde , Hunan, China
                [6] 6 Hunan Academy of Chinese Medicine , Changsha, Hunan, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Bo Li, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, China

                Reviewed by: Dayun Feng, Fourth Military Medical University, China; Sterling B. Ortega, University of North Texas Health Science Center, United States

                *Correspondence: Jinwen Ge, 001267@ 123456hnucm.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2022.1047550
                9933144
                36818470
                b90dee9e-cd66-477d-a5d6-60fce443743a
                Copyright © 2023 Zeng, Bao, Yang, Zhu, Wang, Xiang, Ge, Zeng and Ge

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 18 September 2022
                : 05 December 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 403, Pages: 29, Words: 14278
                Funding
                This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81774174), the National Key Research and Development Project of China (No. 2018YFC1704904), National Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (2020JJ5424 and 2020JJ5442), Hunan University of Chinese Medicine “Double First-Class” Discipline Open Fund Project of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine (2020ZXYJH08 and 2020ZXYJH09), Hunan Provincial Department of Education Youth Fund Project (21B0386).
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review

                Immunology
                ischemic stroke,microglia/macrophages,neuroimmune inflammation,natural botanical components,botanicals

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