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      Strabismus in Bronzino’s paintings: a hallmark of a realistic painter?

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The present article analyses eleven paintings of Bronzino, one of the major painters of the late Italian Mannerism, in which the sitters are portrayed with deviating eyes. The reasons why Bronzino may have included a truant eye in his subjects are herein discussed. We consider the ‘wandering’ eye as a hallmark of Bronzino’s style. The inclusion of strabismus may be part of the Mannerismtendency of usingexaggerated hallmarks but pursuing at the same time an increasing realism that was typical of the 15 th and 16 th century movements. (www.actabiomedica.it)

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          Most cited references 16

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          Amblyopia and binocular vision.

           Gary Birch (2013)
          Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual loss in children, affecting 1.3%-3.6% of children. Current treatments are effective in reducing the visual acuity deficit but many amblyopic individuals are left with residual visual acuity deficits, ocular motor abnormalities, deficient fine motor skills, and risk for recurrent amblyopia. Using a combination of psychophysical, electrophysiological, imaging, risk factor analysis, and fine motor skill assessment, the primary role of binocular dysfunction in the genesis of amblyopia and the constellation of visual and motor deficits that accompany the visual acuity deficit has been identified. These findings motivated us to evaluate a new, binocular approach to amblyopia treatment with the goals of reducing or eliminating residual and recurrent amblyopia and of improving the deficient ocular motor function and fine motor skills that accompany amblyopia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Stereopsis and amblyopia: A mini-review.

            Amblyopia is a neuro-developmental disorder of the visual cortex that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. Amblyopia is clinically important because it is a major cause of vision loss in infants and young children. Amblyopia is also of basic interest because it reflects the neural impairment that occurs when normal visual development is disrupted. Amblyopia provides an ideal model for understanding when and how brain plasticity may be harnessed for recovery of function. Over the past two decades there has been a rekindling of interest in developing more effective methods for treating amblyopia, and for extending the treatment beyond the critical period, as exemplified by new clinical trials and new basic research studies. The focus of this review is on stereopsis and its potential for recovery. Impaired stereoscopic depth perception is the most common deficit associated with amblyopia under ordinary (binocular) viewing conditions (Webber & Wood, 2005). Our review of the extant literature suggests that this impairment may have a substantial impact on visuomotor tasks, difficulties in playing sports in children and locomoting safely in older adults. Furthermore, impaired stereopsis may also limit career options for amblyopes. Finally, stereopsis is more impacted in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Our review of the various approaches to treating amblyopia (patching, perceptual learning, videogames) suggests that there are several promising new approaches to recovering stereopsis in both anisometropic and strabismic amblyopes. However, recovery of stereoacuity may require more active treatment in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Individuals with strabismic amblyopia have a very low probability of improvement with monocular training; however they fare better with dichoptic training than with monocular training, and even better with direct stereo training.
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              Genetic basis of congenital strabismus.

              Strabismus is misalignment of one eye in relation to the other, resulting in failure of the 2 eyes to simultaneously focus on the same image and loss of binocular vision. Strabismus affects 2% to 4% of the population and can result in amblyopia, which is often not discovered in time to initiate effective treatment. Thus, an understanding of the genetic underpinnings of strabismus may help identify patients at risk early enough to prevent disability and may lead to new preventive or therapeutic approaches.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Acta Biomed
                Acta Biomed
                Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis
                Mattioli 1885 (Italy )
                0392-4203
                2018
                : 89
                : 4
                : 564-568
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Villa Salaria Clinic, Rome, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Immunodermatology, Istituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata, IRCCS, Rome, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy
                [4 ]Ophthalmology Unit, University Hospital of Pisa, Italy
                [5 ]Ophthalmology Unit, Hospital Carlo Poma, Mantova, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Davide Lazzeri, M.D. Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Villa Salaria Clinic, Rome, Italy E-mail: davidelazzeri@ 123456gmail.com
                ACTA-89-564
                10.23750/abm.v89i4.6385
                6502094
                30657125
                Copyright: © 2018 ACTA BIO MEDICA SOCIETY OF MEDICINE AND NATURAL SCIENCES OF PARMA

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

                Categories
                Original Article

                bronzino, squint, renaissance paintings, medical diagnosis

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