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      Field evaluation of piglet vaccination with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin as compared to a ready-to-use product including porcine circovirus 2 and M. hyopneumoniae in a conventional French farrow-to-finish farm

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          Abstract

          Background

          A controlled randomized trial was performed on a well-managed conventional French 180-sow farm. The trial compared the growth performances of piglets vaccinated at weaning (single shot) either with a commercial monovalent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin vaccine or with a commercial bivalent vaccine (Porcilis® PCV M Hyo) against M. hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). The farm’s porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome status was stable, and most diseases (enzootic pneumonia, atrophic rhinitis, post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome) were controlled by routine vaccination.

          Results

          During the post-weaning phase, the growth performances of the piglets vaccinated with the bivalent vaccine were not significantly different from those vaccinated with the monovalent vaccine. However, during the fattening phase the group vaccinated with the bivalent vaccine had a significantly improved ADG (+34 g/d, p = 0. 047), resulting in a 5-day earlier shipment to slaughter. The group also had a shorter and lower PCV2 load in serum during the fattening period, and an improved lung lesions score. In both groups, three pigs died during the peak PCV2 viraemia (16–23 weeks of age). Immunohistochemistry of the lymph nodes showed that in the group vaccinated with the bivalent vaccine, none of these pigs had PCV2-like lesions, while 2 out of the 3 from the other group did. Results suggest that the added PCV2 valence in the vaccination protocol helps countering the negative impact of subclinical PCV2 infection on growth. The calculated return on investment of the added PCV2 vaccine valence was €1.7 extra revenue per slaughtered pig (€ 39 additional revenue per sow and per year), despite the fact that the cost of the bivalent vaccine was higher than the monovalent M. hyopneumoniae vaccine.

          Conclusion

          In this healthy conventional sow farm, the combined M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2 vaccination was efficacious, convenient to administer and profitable.

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          Most cited references8

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          Infectious agents associated with respiratory diseases in 125 farrow-to-finish pig herds: a cross-sectional study.

          A study was carried out in 125 farrow-to-finish pig herds to assess the relationships between pathogens involved in respiratory disorders and to relate these findings to clinical signs of respiratory diseases and pneumonia and pleuritis at slaughter. Clinical examination and sampling were carried out on four different batches in each herd (pigs aged 4, 10, 16 and 22 weeks). Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, swine influenza viruses (SIV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were detected by serological or PCR tests. Pneumonia-like gross lesions and pleuritis were scored at the slaughterhouse. The results indicate that the percentage of pigs PCR-positive for PCV2 at 4, 10 and 16 weeks old was associated with the percentage of pigs PCR-positive for M. hyopneumoniae at these ages. On the other hand, the percentage of pigs with antibodies against PRRSV at 10, 16 and 22 weeks was positively correlated with the percentage of pigs seropositive for M. hyopneumoniae at 22 weeks, with the percentage of pigs with antibodies against SIV H1N1 and SIV H1N2 and the percentage of pigs sero-positive for A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. The findings also indicate that, within the five studied pathogens, M. hyopneumoniae, PRRSV and SIV H1N1 are the major pathogens involved in pneumonia-like gross lesions even though PCV2 may play a role. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, in association with PRRSV, is significantly associated with extensive pleuritis. Respiratory diseases could be significantly reduced by implementing measures including appropriate management practices to control these pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Cost of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome and porcine circovirus type-2 subclinical infection in England – An economic disease model

            Post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is a multi-factorial disease with major economic implications for the pig industry worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the economic impact of PMWS and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subclinical infections (PCV2SI) for farrow-to-finish farms and to estimate the resulting cost to the English pig industry. A disease model was built to simulate the varying proportions of pigs in a batch that get infected with PCV2 and develop either PMWS, subclinical disease (reduce growth without evident clinical signs) or remain healthy (normal growth and no clinical signs), depending on the farm level PMWS severity. This PMWS severity measure accounted for the level of post-weaning mortality, PMWS morbidity and proportion of PCV2 infected pigs observed on farms. The model generated six outcomes: infected pigs with PMWS that die (PMWS-D); infected pigs with PMWS that recover (PMWS-R); subclinical pigs that die (Sub-D); subclinical pigs that reach slaughter age (Sub-S); healthy pigs sold (H-S); and pigs, infected or non-infected by PCV2, that die due to non-PCV2 related causes (nonPCV2-D). Enterprise and partial budget analyses were used to assess the deficit/profits and the extra costs/extra benefits of a change in disease status, respectively. Results from the economic analysis at pig level were combined with the disease model's estimates of the proportion of different pigs produced at different severity scores to assess the cost of PMWS and subclinical disease at farm level, and these were then extrapolated to estimate costs at national level. The net profit for a H-S pig was £19.2. The mean loss for a PMWS-D pig was £84.1 (90% CI: 79.6–89.1), £24.5 (90% CI: 15.1–35.4) for a PMWS-R pig, £82.3 (90% CI: 78.1–87.5) for a Sub-D pig, and £8.1 (90% CI: 2.18–15.1) for a Sub-S pig. At farm level, the greatest proportion of negative economic impact was attributed to PCV2 subclinical pigs. The economic impact for the English pig industry for the year 2008, prior to the introduction of PCV2 vaccines, was estimated at £52.6 million per year (90% CI: 34.7–72.0), and approximately £88 million per year during the epidemic period. This was the first study to use empirical data to model the cost of PMWS/PCV2SI at different farm severity levels. Results from this model will be used to assess the efficiency of different control measures and to provide a decision support tool to farmers and policy makers.
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              Vaccination of dams increases antibody titer and improves growth parameters in finisher pigs subclinically infected with porcine circovirus type 2.

              Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the obligate infectious agent in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) of pigs. To control PMWS, we vaccinated dams at 4 and 2 weeks before pregnancy and again in the 12th week of gestation with an inactivated PCV2 vaccine (Circovac). Two producer farms run under the control of Swiss Swine Health Organization were selected for the experiment. Previously, in one farm PMWS was diagnosed on pigs after weaning, whereas in the other farm, pigs wasted during the fattening period. For the experiments 113 dams were randomly vaccinated, and 111 dams were sham injected. Vaccination increased serum antibodies in dams 3- to 9-fold, accompanied by serum antibody titer increases in their offspring. In the sixth week of life, progeny from vaccinated dams had about the same IgG antibody titers as progeny of unvaccinated dams at the third day of life. In sera of vaccinated dams only low concentrations of PCV2 DNA were detected, and no progeny developed PMWS. Interestingly, at day 56 four progeny of unvaccinated dams tested positive for anti-PCV2 IgM antibodies, indicating a primary infection with PCV2. Of economic importance is the observation that progeny of vaccinated dams had a significantly higher daily weight gain in the fattening period (farm X, +51 g/day; farm Y, +30 g/day) and thus a shortened fattening period of about 6 days compared to progeny of controls. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of subclinical circovirus infection and its effects on growth performance of fattening pigs by vaccination of dams.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                didier.duivon@merck.com
                isabelle.correge@ifip.asso.fr
                anne.hemonic@ifip.asso.fr
                martial.rigaut@merck.com
                david.roudaut@merck.com
                rika.jolie@merck.com
                Journal
                Porcine Health Manag
                Porcine Health Manag
                Porcine Health Management
                BioMed Central (London )
                2055-5660
                18 January 2018
                18 January 2018
                2018
                : 4
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]MSD Santé Animale, 7, rue Olivier de Serres - Angers Technopole, C.S. 17144, 49071 Beaucouzé cedex, France
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8891 6478, GRID grid.435456.5, IFIP, ; La Motte au Vicomte, 35650 Le Rheu, France
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2260 0793, GRID grid.417993.1, MSD Animal Health, ; 2 Giralda Farms, Madison, NJ 07940 USA
                Article
                77
                10.1186/s40813-017-0077-y
                5772722
                29375890
                b91a7bfa-8162-4031-bf53-bfb6b27e81e0
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 26 April 2017
                : 8 December 2017
                Funding
                Funded by: MSD Animal Health / Madison / USA
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                pcv2,mycoplasma hyopneumoniae,vaccine,randomized controlled field trial

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