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      A robust fractionation method for protein subcellular localization studies in Escherichia coli

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          Abstract

          Fractionation in Gram-negative bacteria is used to identify the subcellular localization of proteins, in particular the localization of exported recombinant proteins. The process of cell fractionation can be fraught with cross-contamination issues and often lacks supporting data for fraction purity. Here, we compare three periplasm extraction and two cell disruption techniques in different combinations to investigate which process gives uncontaminated compartments from Escherichia coli. From these data, a robust method named PureFrac was compiled that gives pure periplasmic fractions and a superior recovery of soluble cytoplasmic proteins. The process extracts periplasm using cold osmotic shock with magnesium, prior to sonication and ultracentrifugation to separate the cytoplasm from insoluble material. This method handles cells cultivated in various conditions and allows preparation of active proteins in their respective compartments.

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          Most cited references 44

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          PSORTb 3.0: improved protein subcellular localization prediction with refined localization subcategories and predictive capabilities for all prokaryotes

          Motivation: PSORTb has remained the most precise bacterial protein subcellular localization (SCL) predictor since it was first made available in 2003. However, the recall needs to be improved and no accurate SCL predictors yet make predictions for archaea, nor differentiate important localization subcategories, such as proteins targeted to a host cell or bacterial hyperstructures/organelles. Such improvements should preferably be encompassed in a freely available web-based predictor that can also be used as a standalone program. Results: We developed PSORTb version 3.0 with improved recall, higher proteome-scale prediction coverage, and new refined localization subcategories. It is the first SCL predictor specifically geared for all prokaryotes, including archaea and bacteria with atypical membrane/cell wall topologies. It features an improved standalone program, with a new batch results delivery system complementing its web interface. We evaluated the most accurate SCL predictors using 5-fold cross validation plus we performed an independent proteomics analysis, showing that PSORTb 3.0 is the most accurate but can benefit from being complemented by Proteome Analyst predictions. Availability: http://www.psort.org/psortb (download open source software or use the web interface). Contact: psort-mail@sfu.ca Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are availableat Bioinformatics online.
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            A One Pot, One Step, Precision Cloning Method with High Throughput Capability

            Current cloning technologies based on site-specific recombination are efficient, simple to use, and flexible, but have the drawback of leaving recombination site sequences in the final construct, adding an extra 8 to 13 amino acids to the expressed protein. We have devised a simple and rapid subcloning strategy to transfer any DNA fragment of interest from an entry clone into an expression vector, without this shortcoming. The strategy is based on the use of type IIs restriction enzymes, which cut outside of their recognition sequence. With proper design of the cleavage sites, two fragments cut by type IIs restriction enzymes can be ligated into a product lacking the original restriction site. Based on this property, a cloning strategy called ‘Golden Gate’ cloning was devised that allows to obtain in one tube and one step close to one hundred percent correct recombinant plasmids after just a 5 minute restriction-ligation. This method is therefore as efficient as currently used recombination-based cloning technologies but yields recombinant plasmids that do not contain unwanted sequences in the final construct, thus providing precision for this fundamental process of genetic manipulation.
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              Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges

              Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BTN
                BioTechniques
                BioTechniques
                BioTechniques
                Future Science Ltd (London, UK )
                0736-6205
                1940-9818
                April 2019
                16 April 2019
                : 66
                : 4
                : 171-178
                Affiliations
                1UCB Celltech, Slough, UK
                2School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK
                10.2144/btn-2018-0135
                © 2019 Celltech R&D Limited

                This work is licensed under the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Unported License

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                Self URI (journal page): https://www.biotechniques.com/
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