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      Chromosomal Mosaicism in Human Feto-Placental Development: Implications for Prenatal Diagnosis

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          Abstract

          Chromosomal mosaicism is one of the primary interpretative issues in prenatal diagnosis. In this review, the mechanisms underlying feto-placental chromosomal mosaicism are presented. Based on the substantial retrospective diagnostic experience with chorionic villi samples (CVS) of a prenatal diagnosis laboratory the following items are discussed: (i) The frequency of the different types of mosaicism (confined placental, CPM, and true fetal mosaicisms, TFM); (ii) The risk of fetal confirmation after the detection of a mosaic in CVS stratified by chromosome abnormality and placental tissue involvement; (iii) The frequency of uniparental disomy for imprinted chromosomes associated with CPM; (iv) The incidence of false-positive and false-negative results in CVS samples analyzed by only (semi-)direct preparation or long term culture; and (v) The implications of the presence of a feto-placental mosaicism for microarray analysis of CVS and non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS).

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          Non-invasive prenatal assessment of trisomy 21 by multiplexed maternal plasma DNA sequencing: large scale validity study

          Objectives To validate the clinical efficacy and practical feasibility of massively parallel maternal plasma DNA sequencing to screen for fetal trisomy 21 among high risk pregnancies clinically indicated for amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Design Diagnostic accuracy validated against full karyotyping, using prospectively collected or archived maternal plasma samples. Setting Prenatal diagnostic units in Hong Kong, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Participants 753 pregnant women at high risk for fetal trisomy 21 who underwent definitive diagnosis by full karyotyping, of whom 86 had a fetus with trisomy 21. Intervention Multiplexed massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in maternal plasma according to two protocols with different levels of sample throughput: 2-plex and 8-plex sequencing. Main outcome measures Proportion of DNA molecules that originated from chromosome 21. A trisomy 21 fetus was diagnosed when the z score for the proportion of chromosome 21 DNA molecules was >3. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for trisomy 21 detection. Results Results were available from 753 pregnancies with the 8-plex sequencing protocol and from 314 pregnancies with the 2-plex protocol. The performance of the 2-plex protocol was superior to that of the 8-plex protocol. With the 2-plex protocol, trisomy 21 fetuses were detected at 100% sensitivity and 97.9% specificity, which resulted in a positive predictive value of 96.6% and negative predictive value of 100%. The 8-plex protocol detected 79.1% of the trisomy 21 fetuses and 98.9% specificity, giving a positive predictive value of 91.9% and negative predictive value of 96.9%. Conclusion Multiplexed maternal plasma DNA sequencing analysis could be used to rule out fetal trisomy 21 among high risk pregnancies. If referrals for amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling were based on the sequencing test results, about 98% of the invasive diagnostic procedures could be avoided.
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            Genome-wide fetal aneuploidy detection by maternal plasma DNA sequencing.

            To prospectively determine the diagnostic accuracy of massively parallel sequencing to detect whole chromosome fetal aneuploidy from maternal plasma. Blood samples were collected in a prospective, blinded study from 2,882 women undergoing prenatal diagnostic procedures at 60 U.S. sites. An independent biostatistician selected all singleton pregnancies with any abnormal karyotype and a balanced number of randomly selected pregnancies with euploid karyotypes. Chromosome classifications were made for each sample by massively parallel sequencing and compared with fetal karyotype. Within an analysis cohort of 532 samples, the following were classified correctly: 89 of 89 trisomy 21 cases (sensitivity 100%, 95% [confidence interval] CI 95.9-100), 35 of 36 trisomy 18 cases (sensitivity 97.2%, 95% CI 85.5-99.9), 11 of 14 trisomy 13 cases (sensitivity 78.6%, 95% CI 49.2-95.3), [corrected] 232 of 233 females (sensitivity 99.6%, 95% CI 97.6 to more than 99.9), 184 of 184 males (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 98.0-100), and 15 of 16 monosomy X cases (sensitivity 93.8%, 95% CI 69.8-99.8). There were no false-positive results for autosomal aneuploidies (100% specificity, 95% CI more than 98.5 to 100). In addition, fetuses with mosaicism for trisomy 21 (3/3), trisomy 18 (1/1), and monosomy X (2/7), three cases of translocation trisomy, two cases of other autosomal trisomies (20 and 16), and other sex chromosome aneuploidies (XXX, XXY, and XYY) were classified correctly. This prospective study demonstrates the efficacy of massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA to detect fetal aneuploidy for multiple chromosomes across the genome. The high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of trisomies 21, 18, 13, and monosomy X suggest that massively parallel sequencing can be incorporated into existing aneuploidy screening algorithms to reduce unnecessary invasive procedures. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01122524. II.
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              A new genetic concept: uniparental disomy and its potential effect, isodisomy.

              E. Engel (1980)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                jcm
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                MDPI
                2077-0383
                24 July 2014
                September 2014
                : 3
                : 3
                : 809-837
                Affiliations
                Research & Development, Cytogenetics, Molecular Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology, TOMA Advanced Biomedical Assays S.P.A., 25/27 Francesco Ferrer Str., Busto Arsizio 21052, Varese, Italy; E-Mail: fgrati@ 123456tomalab.com ; Tel.: +39-0331-652911; Fax: +39-0331-652919
                Article
                jcm-03-00809
                10.3390/jcm3030809
                4449651
                b91fc5de-dd86-4867-b7c6-0917ab73dabb
                © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                chromosome mosaicism,chorionic villi,mesenchyme,cytotrophoblast,amniocentesis,uniparental disomy,confined placental mosaicism,true fetal mosaicism,non-invasive prenatal screening

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