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      Widespread Occurrence of Black-Orange-Black Color Pattern in Hymenoptera

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          Certain color patterns in insects show convergent evolution reflecting potentially important biological functions, for example, aposematism and mimicry. This phenomenon has been most frequently documented in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, but has been less well investigated in Hymenoptera. It has long been recognized that many hymenopterans, especially scelionids (Platygastridae), show a recurring pattern of black head, orange/red mesosoma, and black metasoma (BOB coloration). However, the taxonomic distribution of this striking color pattern has never been documented across the entire order. The main objective of our research was to provide a preliminary tabulation of this color pattern in Hymenoptera, through examination of museum specimens and relevant literature. We included 11 variations of the typical BOB color pattern but did not include all possible variations. These color patterns were found in species belonging to 23 families of Hymenoptera, and was most frequently observed in scelionids, evaniids, and mutillids, but was relatively infrequent in Cynipoids, Diaprioids, Chalcidoids, and Apoids. The widespread occurrence of this color pattern in Hymenoptera strongly suggests convergent evolution and a potentially important function. The BOB color pattern was found in species from all biogeographic regions and within a species it was usually present in both sexes (with a few notable exceptions). In better studied tropical regions, such as Costa Rica, this color pattern was more common in species occurring at lower elevations (below 2,000 m). The biology of the tabulated taxa encompasses both ecto- and endoparasitoids, idiobionts and koinobionts, from a diversity of hosts, as well as phytophagous sawflies.

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          Evolution of Diversity in Warning Color and Mimicry: Polymorphisms, Shifting Balance, and Speciation

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            Phylogenomic Insights into the Evolution of Stinging Wasps and the Origins of Ants and Bees.

            The stinging wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) are an extremely diverse lineage of hymenopteran insects, encompassing over 70,000 described species and a diversity of life history traits, including ectoparasitism, cleptoparasitism, predation, pollen feeding (bees [Anthophila] and Masarinae), and eusociality (social vespid wasps, ants, and some bees) [1]. The most well-studied lineages of Aculeata are the ants, which are ecologically dominant in most terrestrial ecosystems [2], and the bees, the most important lineage of angiosperm-pollinating insects [3]. Establishing the phylogenetic affinities of ants and bees helps us understand and reconstruct patterns of social evolution as well as fully appreciate the biological implications of the switch from carnivory to pollen feeding (pollenivory). Despite recent advancements in aculeate phylogeny [4-11], considerable uncertainty remains regarding higher-level relationships within Aculeata, including the phylogenetic affinities of ants and bees [5-7]. We used ultraconserved element (UCE) phylogenomics [7, 12] to resolve relationships among stinging-wasp families, gathering sequence data from >800 UCE loci and 187 samples, including 30 out of 31 aculeate families. We analyzed the 187-taxon dataset using multiple analytical approaches, and we evaluated several alternative taxon sets. We also tested alternative hypotheses for the phylogenetic positions of ants and bees. Our results present a highly supported phylogeny of the stinging wasps. Most importantly, we find unequivocal evidence that ants are the sister group to bees+apoid wasps (Apoidea) and that bees are nested within a paraphyletic Crabronidae. We also demonstrate that taxon choice can fundamentally impact tree topology and clade support in phylogenomic inference.
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              Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature.

              Many animals are toxic or unpalatable and signal this to predators with warning signals (aposematism). Aposematic appearance has long been a classical system to study predator-prey interactions, communication and signalling, and animal behaviour and learning. The area has received considerable empirical and theoretical investigation. However, most research has centred on understanding the initial evolution of aposematism, despite the fact that these studies often tell us little about the form and diversity of real warning signals in nature. In contrast, less attention has been given to the mechanistic basis of aposematic markings; that is, 'what makes an effective warning signal?', and the efficacy of warning signals has been neglected. Furthermore, unlike other areas of adaptive coloration research (such as camouflage and mate choice), studies of warning coloration have often been slow to address predator vision and psychology. Here, we review the current understanding of warning signal form, with an aim to comprehend the diversity of warning signals in nature. We present hypotheses and suggestions for future work regarding our current understanding of several inter-related questions covering the form of warning signals and their relationship with predator vision, learning, and links to broader issues in evolutionary ecology such as mate choice and speciation.

                Author and article information

                J Insect Sci
                J. Insect Sci
                Journal of Insect Science
                Oxford University Press (US )
                March 2019
                11 March 2019
                11 March 2019
                : 19
                : 2
                [1 ]Universidad de Costa Rica, Centro de Investigación en Biología Celular y Molecular, Ciudad de la Investigación Postal, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, SJ, Costa Rica
                [2 ]Universidad de Costa Rica, Escuela de Biología, Apartado Postal, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, SJ, Costa Rica
                Author notes
                Corresponding author, e-mail: rebemc@ 123456gmail.com
                © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 12


                aposematism, braconidae, evaniidae, ichneumonidae, platygastridae, scelioninae


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