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      Blunted epidermal L-tryptophan metabolism in vitiligo affects immune response and ROS scavenging by Fenton chemistry, part 2: Epidermal H2O2/ONOO(-)-mediated stress in vitiligo hampers indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated immune response signaling.

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          Abstract

          Vitiligo is characterized by a mostly progressive loss of the inherited skin color. The cause of the disease is still unknown, despite accumulating in vivo and in vitro evidence of massive oxidative stress via hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in the skin of affected individuals. The most favored hypothesis is based on autoimmune mechanisms. Since depletion of the essential amino acid L-tryptophan (Trp) severely affects various immune responses, we here looked at Trp metabolism and signaling in these patients. Our in vivo and in vitro data revealed total absence of epidermal Trp hydroxylase activities and the presence of H(2)O(2)/ONOO(-) deactivated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling is severely impaired despite the ligand (Trp dimer) being formed, as shown by mass spectrometry. Loss of this signal is supported by the absence of downstream signals (COX-2 and CYP1A1) as well as regulatory T-lymphocytes and by computer modeling. In vivo Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Trp metabolites together with H(2)O(2) supporting deprivation of the epidermal Trp pool by Fenton chemistry. Taken together, our data support a long-expressed role for in loco redox balance and a distinct immune response. These insights could open novel treatment strategies for this disease.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          FASEB J.
          FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
          1530-6860
          0892-6638
          Jun 2012
          : 26
          : 6
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Institute for Pigmentary Disorders, E. M. Arndt University, Greifswald, Germany. k.schallreuter@bradford.ac.uk
          Article
          fj.11-201897
          10.1096/fj.11-201897
          22415306

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