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      Trastornos y hábitos de sueño en niños y adolescentes con autismo


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          Introducción: existe una alta prevalencia de trastornos del sueño en personas con autismo. Objetivo: el propósito de este estudio fue describir las alteraciones del sueño y malos hábitos de sueño en una población de niños y adolescentes con autismo y determinar si existen diferencias según la edad. Métodos: estudio transversal, descriptivo. Se incluyeron 14 niños y 12 adolescentes con autismo procedentes del Centro de Atención Integrada para personas con Autismo en San Cristóbal, Venezuela. Fueron evaluados con un cuestionario para padres, que registra los hábitos de sueño en un periodo de 6 meses. Se establecieron comparaciones entre niños menores de 12 años y adolescentes. Resultados: el trastorno de sueño informado con mayor frecuencia en niños fue dificultad para quedarse dormido (35,7%) y en adolescentes enuresis (30%). En cuanto a malos hábitos de sueño, predominó en niños, la necesidad de estar acompañado al momento de quedarse dormido (64,3%) al igual que en los adolescentes (33,3%). Conclusiones: En Venezuela, un alto porcentaje de niños y adolescentes con autismo presentan alteraciones del sueño superiores a la población general; tales como dormir en cama de los padres o necesitar compañía al momento de quedarse dormidos; sin embargo, muchos padres no consideran que esto sea un problema serio que afecte a la familia o al niño.

          Translated abstract

          Introduction: there is a high prevalence of sleep disorders in people with autism. Objective: the objective of this study was to describe sleep disturbances and poor sleep habits in a population of children and adolescents with autism in Venezuela and to determine differences by age. Methods: descriptive, crosssectional study. 14 children and 12 adolescents with autism were assessed with a questionnaire for parents, which recorded the sleep habits from 6 months earlier in the Center of integrated care for people with autism, in San Cristobal, Venezuela. Comparisons were established between children under 12 years old and adolescents. Results: the sleep disorder reported more frequently in children was difficulty falling asleep (35.7%) and enuresis in adolescents (30%). In regard to bad sleep habits, the need to be accompanied at the time of falling asleep predominated in children (64.3%), as well as in adolescents (33.3%). Conclusions: In Venezuela, a high percentage of children and adolescents with autism have more sleep disorders than the general population, as the need to sleep in parent’s bed and the need of company when falling asleep. However, many parents do not consider this as a serious problem affecting the family or the child.

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          Sleep problems in autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, nature, & possible biopsychosocial aetiologies.

          As considerably more people are diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), interest in the associated behaviours, including sleep problems has increased. This has resulted in a subsequent increase in the research related to the sleep problems occurring in people with an ASD. This article summarizes and evaluates the current literature related to a) the higher prevalence of a sleep problem compared to typically developing children, b) the specific types of sleep problems for people with an ASD, and c) the possible aetiology of sleep problems in the ASDs within a biopsychosocial framework. It is concluded that recent studies confirm that the majority of this population are likely to experience sleep difficulties, with settling issues in children with an ASD the most commonly reported. However, exploration of the types of sleep difficulties and associated aetiological factors in the ASDs is still in its infancy.
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            Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children.

            Prevalence rates of autism-spectrum disorders are uncertain, and speculation that their incidence is increasing continues to cause concern. To estimate the prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) in a geographically defined population of preschool children. Survey conducted July 1998 to June 1999 in Staffordshire, England. The area's 15 500 children aged 2.5 to 6.5 years were screened for developmental problems. Children with symptoms suggestive of a PDD were intensively assessed by a multidisciplinary team, which conducted standardized diagnostic interviews and administered psychometric tests. Prevalence estimates for subtypes of PDDs. A total of 97 children (79.4% male) were confirmed to have a PDD. The prevalence of PDDs was estimated to be 62.6 (95% confidence interval, 50.8-76.3) per 10 000 children. Prevalences were 16.8 per 10 000 for autistic disorder and 45.8 per 10 000 for other PDDs. The mean age at diagnosis was 41 months, and 81% were originally referred by health visitors (nurse specialists). Of the 97 children with a PDD, 25.8% had some degree of mental retardation and 9.3% had an associated medical condition. Our results suggest that rates of PDD are higher than previously reported. Methodological limitations in existing epidemiological investigations preclude interpretation of recent high rates as indicative of increased incidence of these disorders although this hypothesis requires further rigorous testing. Attention is nevertheless drawn to the important needs of a substantial minority of preschool children.
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              Sleep behaviors and sleep quality in children with autism spectrum disorders.

              (1) Compare sleep behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with sleep behaviors of typically developing (TD) children using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ); (2) compare sleep quality--defined as mean activity, sleep latency, number of awakenings, sleep efficiency and total sleep time--of the cohort of children with ASD and TD, as measured by 10 nights of actigraphy; and (3) estimate the prevalence of sleep disturbances in the ASD and TD cohorts. Descriptive cross-sectional study. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Randomly selected children from the Regional Autism Center. The ASD cohort of 59 children, aged 4 to 10 years, (26 with autism, 21 with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified [PDD-NOS], and 12 with Asperger disorder) were compared with 40 TD control subjects. The CSHQ, sleep diaries, and 10 nights of actigraphy using the Sadeh algorithm of children with ASD and TD control subjects were compared. CSHQ showed 66.1% of parents of children with ASD (62.5% autism, 76.2% PDD-NOS, 58.3% Asperger disorder) and 45% of parents of the control subjects reported that their children had sleep problems. Actigraphic data showed that 66.7% of children with ASD (75% autism, 52.4% PDD-NOS, 75% Asperger disorder) and 45.9% of the control subjects had disturbed sleep. The prevalence estimate of 45% for mild sleep disturbances in the TD cohort highlights pediatric sleep debt as a public health problem of concern. The prevalence estimate of 66% for moderate sleep disturbances in the ASD cohort underscores the significant sleep problems that the families of these children face. The predominant sleep disorders in the ASD cohort were behavioral insomnia sleep-onset type and insomnia due to PDD.

                Author and article information

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                Archivos Venezolanos de Puericultura y Pediatría
                Arch Venez Puer Ped
                Sociedad Venezolana de Puericultura y Pediatría (Caracas )
                June 2010
                : 73
                : 2
                : 02-08
                [1 ] Universidad de los Andes Venezuela
                [2 ] Universidad de los Andes Venezuela
                [3 ] Universidad de los Andes Venezuela
                [4 ] Universidad de los Andes Venezuela



                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0649&lng=en
                HEALTH POLICY & SERVICES

                Pediatrics,Health & Social care,Public health
                autism,autismo,alteraciones del sueño,niños,adolescentes,sleep disorders,children,adolescents


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