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      Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cytokine and Chemokine Expression in Human Carotid Lesions

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          Abstract

          The release of cytokines and chemokines from activated immune-competent cells plays a crucial role in determining the pathology of the atherogenic progress. We investigated the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on cytokine/chemokine expression in carotid lesions and normal renal arteries. The lesions or renal arteries were incubated for 6 h at 37°C in serum-free media treated with or without LPS. After LPS treatment, increased protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and MCP-1 were observed in the culture medium from the lesions measured with cytometric bead array. We were able to detect the induction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and MCP-1 mRNA in the lesions after stimulation with LPS using real-time PCR. In renal arteries, LPS also induces mRNA expression of all chemokines and cytokines investigated with the exception of IL-6. However, LPS induces significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 mRNA in lesions compared to renal arteries. The results suggest that infectious agents are capable of enhancing the production of cytokines/chemokines in an already ongoing inflammatory process such as in atherosclerosis, and that low levels of circulating LPS may affect the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines much more in atherosclerotic vessels than in normal vessels and may contribute to the development of the atherosclerotic lesion.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Inflammatory bio-markers and cardiovascular risk prediction.

           G. Blake,  P Ridker (2002)
          Inflammatory processes are now recognized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its complications. Plasma levels of several markers of inflammation have been found to be associated with future cardiovascular risk in a variety of clinical settings. These markers include cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, pro-atherogenic enzymes and C-reactive protein (CRP). Initially thought of as an inactive downstream marker of the inflammatory cascade, emerging evidence suggests that CRP may be directly involved in atherogenesis, and that arterial plaque can produce CRP, independent of traditional hepatic pathways. In addition to being a strong predictor of future cardiovascular risk amongst patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes, numerous studies have found that baseline levels of CRP are associated with risk of future myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease and cardiovascular death amongst apparently healthy populations. The combination of measurement of a marker of inflammation with lipid testing may improve upon risk stratification based on lipid testing alone, and intensification of programmes for exercise, weight loss, and smoking cessation is recommended for those with elevated CRP levels. Further trials are needed to confirm the potential benefits of statins amongst individuals with elevated CRP levels.
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            Novel clinical markers of vascular wall inflammation.

            Inflammatory processes play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and mediate many of the stages of atheroma development from initial leukocyte recruitment to eventual rupture of the unstable atherosclerotic plaque. Elevated plasma levels of several markers of the inflammatory cascade have been shown to predict future risk of plaque rupture. These markers include P-selectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Produced in the liver in response to interleukin-6, CRP has emerged as the most powerful inflammatory marker of future cardiovascular risk. Initially considered an innocent bystander in the atherosclerotic process, recent evidence suggests that CRP may have direct proinflammatory effects. Numerous large-scale, prospective studies have found that elevated baseline levels of CRP are a strong independent predictor of future vascular risk. Furthermore, aspirin and statin therapy appear to be particularly effective among individuals with high CRP levels. The addition of CRP screening to traditional lipid testing has the potential to identify individuals at high risk for future cardiovascular events who may benefit from targeted preventive interventions.
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              Interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 protein and gene expression in human arterial atherosclerotic wall.

              Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) are present in the human arterial atherosclerotic wall as cellular and extracellular deposits in the connective tissue matrix. Quantitative determinations of IL-6 by ELISA showed mean values of 27.6 +/- 3.3 ng/100 mg protein in normal intima, 37.3 +/- 2.1 ng/100 mg protein in fibrous plaque and 25.7 +/- 4.3 ng/100 mg total extracted protein in media. IL-8 levels were 3.5 +/- 0.6 ng/100 mg protein in normal intima, 11.3 +/- 2.1 ng/100 mg protein in fibrous plaque and 8.5 +/- 1.4 ng/100 mg total extracted protein in media. Fibrous plaques presented statistically significant higher levels of both IL-6 and IL-8. IL-6 and IL-8 gene transcripts were present in human iliac fibrous plaque and media prelevated at surgery indicating that a local production by the cells of the arterial wall participate to their accumulation. We also tested the role of complement activation in induction of IL-6 and IL-8 protein synthesis as well as the subsequent activation of endothelial cells. Only IL-8 was induced by complement activation and this may contribute to increased IL-8 levels found in the atherosclerotic wall. When exposed to terminal complement complexes, endothelial cells in culture also showed an increase of both DNA-synthesis and p70 S6 kinase activity indicating that complement is able to induce not only IL-8 synthesis but also cell activation. The presence of IL-6 and IL-8 in the arterial wall where complement activation also occurred, clearly show the involvement of inflammatory events in initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2005
                June 2005
                03 June 2005
                : 42
                : 3
                : 266-271
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Biomedicine, Department of Caring Sciences, University of Örebro, and bDepartment of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden
                Article
                85721 J Vasc Res 2005;42:266–271
                10.1159/000085721
                15886490
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 25, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Paper

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