+1 Recommend
2 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Comparative Study of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis-Risk Factors, Clinical Course, and Outcome in Subjects with and without COVID-19 Infection


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) has been increasingly reported in patients with COVID-19. Most published literature is descriptive and focuses only on CVT in COVID-19 patients. The objective of our study was to compare CVT patients’ characteristics with and without an associated COVID-19 infection.

          Materials and Methods

          This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. All adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CVT admitted to our hospital over a period of 30 months, from January 2019 to June 2021, were included. They were further divided into two groups, with and without COVID-19 infection.


          A total of 115 CVT patients were included, 93 in non-COVID-CVT and 22 in COVID-CVT group. COVID-CVT patients were male predominant and of older age, with longer hospital stay, and higher inpatient mortality. COVID-CVT patients presented with a higher frequency of headache (82% vs. 63%), seizures (64% vs. 37%, p = 0.03), hemiparesis (41% vs. 24%), and visual changes (36% vs. 19%) as compared to non-COVID-CVT patients. Venogram showed a higher frequency of superior sagittal sinus (64% vs. 42%) and internal jugular vein (23% vs. 12%) involvement in the COVID-CVT cohort. More than 90% of patients in both groups received therapeutic anticoagulation. Mortality rates were higher in COVID-CVT group (18% vs. 11%).


          COVID-CVT patients were male predominant and of older age, with higher hospital stay, and higher inpatient mortality as compared to non-COVID-CVT patients.

          Related collections

          Most cited references23

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19

          Introduction COVID-19 may predispose to both venous and arterial thromboembolism due to excessive inflammation, hypoxia, immobilisation and diffuse intravascular coagulation. Reports on the incidence of thrombotic complications are however not available. Methods We evaluated the incidence of the composite outcome of symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism (PE), deep-vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction or systemic arterial embolism in all COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU of 2 Dutch university hospitals and 1 Dutch teaching hospital. Results We studied 184 ICU patients with proven COVID-19 pneumonia of whom 23 died (13%), 22 were discharged alive (12%) and 139 (76%) were still on the ICU on April 5th 2020. All patients received at least standard doses thromboprophylaxis. The cumulative incidence of the composite outcome was 31% (95%CI 20-41), of which CTPA and/or ultrasonography confirmed VTE in 27% (95%CI 17-37%) and arterial thrombotic events in 3.7% (95%CI 0-8.2%). PE was the most frequent thrombotic complication (n = 25, 81%). Age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.05/per year, 95%CI 1.004-1.01) and coagulopathy, defined as spontaneous prolongation of the prothrombin time > 3 s or activated partial thromboplastin time > 5 s (aHR 4.1, 95%CI 1.9-9.1), were independent predictors of thrombotic complications. Conclusion The 31% incidence of thrombotic complications in ICU patients with COVID-19 infections is remarkably high. Our findings reinforce the recommendation to strictly apply pharmacological thrombosis prophylaxis in all COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU, and are strongly suggestive of increasing the prophylaxis towards high-prophylactic doses, even in the absence of randomized evidence.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 Vaccination

            Background Several cases of unusual thrombotic events and thrombocytopenia have developed after vaccination with the recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the spike protein antigen of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (ChAdOx1 nCov-19, AstraZeneca). More data were needed on the pathogenesis of this unusual clotting disorder. Methods We assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 11 patients in Germany and Austria in whom thrombosis or thrombocytopenia had developed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19. We used a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect platelet factor 4 (PF4)–heparin antibodies and a modified (PF4-enhanced) platelet-activation test to detect platelet-activating antibodies under various reaction conditions. Included in this testing were samples from patients who had blood samples referred for investigation of vaccine-associated thrombotic events, with 28 testing positive on a screening PF4–heparin immunoassay. Results Of the 11 original patients, 9 were women, with a median age of 36 years (range, 22 to 49). Beginning 5 to 16 days after vaccination, the patients presented with one or more thrombotic events, with the exception of 1 patient, who presented with fatal intracranial hemorrhage. Of the patients with one or more thrombotic events, 9 had cerebral venous thrombosis, 3 had splanchnic-vein thrombosis, 3 had pulmonary embolism, and 4 had other thromboses; of these patients, 6 died. Five patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation. None of the patients had received heparin before symptom onset. All 28 patients who tested positive for antibodies against PF4–heparin tested positive on the platelet-activation assay in the presence of PF4 independent of heparin. Platelet activation was inhibited by high levels of heparin, Fc receptor–blocking monoclonal antibody, and immune globulin (10 mg per milliliter). Additional studies with PF4 or PF4–heparin affinity purified antibodies in 2 patients confirmed PF4-dependent platelet activation. Conclusions Vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 can result in the rare development of immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia mediated by platelet-activating antibodies against PF4, which clinically mimics autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. (Funded by the German Research Foundation.)
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Pulmonary Embolism in COVID-19 Patients: Awareness of an Increased Prevalence


                Author and article information

                Cerebrovasc Dis Extra
                Cerebrovasc Dis Extra
                Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
                S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland )
                Jan-Dec 2023
                25 April 2023
                : 13
                : 1
                : 63-68
                [a ]Department of Neurology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
                [b ]Department of Neurology, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
                [c ]Liaquat College of Medicine and Dentistry, Karachi, Pakistan
                [d ]Rashid Hospital, Dubai, UAE
                [e ]B.L.Kapur Hospital (Max Health Care Group), Centre for Neurosciences, New Delhi, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Mohammad Wasay, mohammad.wasay@ 123456aku.edu
                © 2023 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/Services/OpenAccessLicense). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission.

                : 1 March 2023
                : 18 April 2023
                : 2023
                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 23, Pages: 6
                Authors did not receive any funding for this project.
                Stroke Spectrum

                Cardiovascular Medicine
                cerebral venous thrombosis,coronavirus disease 2019,risk factors,demographics,outcome


                Comment on this article