Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Ranaviruses and reptiles

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Ranaviruses can infect many vertebrate classes including fish, amphibians and reptiles, but for the most part, research has been focused on non-reptilian hosts, amphibians in particular. More recently, reports of ranaviral infections of reptiles are increasing with over 12 families of reptiles currently susceptible to ranaviral infection. Reptiles are infected by ranaviruses that are genetically similar to, or the same as, the viruses that infect amphibians and fish; however, physiological and ecological differences result in differences in study designs. Although ranaviral disease in reptiles is often influenced by host species, viral strain and environmental differences, general trends in pathogenesis are emerging. More experimental studies using a variety of reptile species, life stages and routes of transmission are required to unravel the complexity of wild ranavirus transmission. Further, our understanding of the reptilian immune response to ranaviral infection is still lacking, although the considerable amount of work conducted in amphibians will serve as a useful guide for future studies in reptiles.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 130

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      The Global Decline of Reptiles, Déjà Vu Amphibians

        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Effect of season and temperature on mortality in amphibians due to chytridiomycosis.

        To investigate the distribution and incidence of chytridiomycosis in eastern Australian frogs and to examine the effects of temperature on this disease. A pathological survey and a transmission experiment were conducted. Diagnostic pathology examinations were performed on free-living and captive, ill and dead amphibians collected opportunistically from eastern Australia between October 1993 and December 2000. We conducted a transmission experiment in the laboratory to investigate the effects of temperature: eight great barred frogs (Mixophyes fasciolatus) exposed to zoospores of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and six unexposed frogs were housed individually in each of three rooms held at 17 degrees C, 23 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Chytridiomycosis was the cause of death or morbidity for 133 (55.2%) of 241 free-living amphibians and for 66 (58.4%) of 113 captive amphibians. This disease occurred in 34 amphibian species, was widespread around the eastern seaboard of Australia and affected amphibians in a variety of habitats at high and low altitudes on or between the Great Dividing Range and the coast. The incidence of chytridiomycosis was higher in winter, with 53% of wild frogs from Queensland and New South Wales dying in July and August. Other diseases were much less common and were detected mostly in spring and summer. In experimental infections, lower temperatures enhanced the pathogenicity of B. dendrobatidis in M. fasciolatus. All 16 frogs exposed to B. dendrobatidis at 17 degrees C and 23 degrees C died, whereas 4 of 8 frogs exposed at 27 degrees C survived. However, the time until death for the frogs that died at 27 degrees C was shorter than at the lower temperatures. Infections in survivors were eliminated by 98 days. Chytridiomycosis is a major cause of mortality in free-living and captive amphibians in Australia and mortality rate increases at lower temperatures.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Ecology and pathology of amphibian ranaviruses.

          Mass mortality of amphibians has occurred globally since at least the early 1990s from viral pathogens that are members of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae. The pathogen infects multiple amphibian hosts, larval and adult cohorts, and may persist in herpetofaunal and osteichthyan reservoirs. Environmental persistence of ranavirus virions outside a host may be several weeks or longer in aquatic systems. Transmission occurs by indirect and direct routes, and includes exposure to contaminated water or soil, casual or direct contact with infected individuals, and ingestion of infected tissue during predation, cannibalism, or necrophagy. Some gross lesions include swelling of the limbs or body, erythema, swollen friable livers, and hemorrhage. Susceptible amphibians usually die from chronic cell death in multiple organs, which can occur within a few days following infection or may take several weeks. Amphibian species differ in their susceptibility to ranaviruses, which may be related to their co-evolutionary history with the pathogen. The occurrence of recent widespread amphibian population die-offs from ranaviruses may be an interaction of suppressed and naïve host immunity, anthropogenic stressors, and novel strain introduction. This review summarizes the ecological research on amphibian ranaviruses, discusses possible drivers of emergence and conservation strategies, and presents ideas for future research directions. We also discuss common pathological signs of ranaviral disease, methods for diagnostic evaluation, and ranavirus surveillance methods. In as much as ranaviral disease is listed as a notifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health and is a threat to amphibian survival, we recommend that biosecurity precautions are implemented by nations to reduce the likelihood of transporting ranavirus virions among populations. Biosecurity precautions include disinfecting footwear and equipment that comes in contact with surface water inhabited by amphibians and testing commercially shipped amphibians for the pathogen. We also encourage natural resource organizations to establish routine surveillance programs for ranaviruses in wild amphibian populations.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University of North Queensland , Townsville, QLD, Australia
            [2 ]College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University of North Queensland , Townsville, QLD, Australia
            [3 ]Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne , Melbourne, Australia
            Contributors
            Journal
            PeerJ
            PeerJ
            peerj
            peerj
            PeerJ
            PeerJ Inc. (San Diego, USA )
            2167-8359
            12 December 2018
            2018
            : 6
            6295156 6083 10.7717/peerj.6083
            ©2018 Wirth et al.

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

            Funding
            The authors received no funding for this work.
            Categories
            Veterinary Medicine
            Virology

            Comments

            Comment on this article