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      Ranaviruses and reptiles

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          Abstract

          Ranaviruses can infect many vertebrate classes including fish, amphibians and reptiles, but for the most part, research has been focused on non-reptilian hosts, amphibians in particular. More recently, reports of ranaviral infections of reptiles are increasing with over 12 families of reptiles currently susceptible to ranaviral infection. Reptiles are infected by ranaviruses that are genetically similar to, or the same as, the viruses that infect amphibians and fish; however, physiological and ecological differences result in differences in study designs. Although ranaviral disease in reptiles is often influenced by host species, viral strain and environmental differences, general trends in pathogenesis are emerging. More experimental studies using a variety of reptile species, life stages and routes of transmission are required to unravel the complexity of wild ranavirus transmission. Further, our understanding of the reptilian immune response to ranaviral infection is still lacking, although the considerable amount of work conducted in amphibians will serve as a useful guide for future studies in reptiles.

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          Most cited references 130

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          The Global Decline of Reptiles, Déjà Vu Amphibians

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            Effect of season and temperature on mortality in amphibians due to chytridiomycosis.

            To investigate the distribution and incidence of chytridiomycosis in eastern Australian frogs and to examine the effects of temperature on this disease. A pathological survey and a transmission experiment were conducted. Diagnostic pathology examinations were performed on free-living and captive, ill and dead amphibians collected opportunistically from eastern Australia between October 1993 and December 2000. We conducted a transmission experiment in the laboratory to investigate the effects of temperature: eight great barred frogs (Mixophyes fasciolatus) exposed to zoospores of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and six unexposed frogs were housed individually in each of three rooms held at 17 degrees C, 23 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Chytridiomycosis was the cause of death or morbidity for 133 (55.2%) of 241 free-living amphibians and for 66 (58.4%) of 113 captive amphibians. This disease occurred in 34 amphibian species, was widespread around the eastern seaboard of Australia and affected amphibians in a variety of habitats at high and low altitudes on or between the Great Dividing Range and the coast. The incidence of chytridiomycosis was higher in winter, with 53% of wild frogs from Queensland and New South Wales dying in July and August. Other diseases were much less common and were detected mostly in spring and summer. In experimental infections, lower temperatures enhanced the pathogenicity of B. dendrobatidis in M. fasciolatus. All 16 frogs exposed to B. dendrobatidis at 17 degrees C and 23 degrees C died, whereas 4 of 8 frogs exposed at 27 degrees C survived. However, the time until death for the frogs that died at 27 degrees C was shorter than at the lower temperatures. Infections in survivors were eliminated by 98 days. Chytridiomycosis is a major cause of mortality in free-living and captive amphibians in Australia and mortality rate increases at lower temperatures.
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              Virus taxonomy: the database of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)

              Abstract The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is charged with the task of developing, refining, and maintaining a universal virus taxonomy. This task encompasses the classification of virus species and higher-level taxa according to the genetic and biological properties of their members; naming virus taxa; maintaining a database detailing the currently approved taxonomy; and providing the database, supporting proposals, and other virus-related information from an open-access, public web site. The ICTV web site (http://ictv.global) provides access to the current taxonomy database in online and downloadable formats, and maintains a complete history of virus taxa back to the first release in 1971. The ICTV has also published the ICTV Report on Virus Taxonomy starting in 1971. This Report provides a comprehensive description of all virus taxa covering virus structure, genome structure, biology and phylogenetics. The ninth ICTV report, published in 2012, is available as an open-access online publication from the ICTV web site. The current, 10th report (http://ictv.global/report/), is being published online, and is replacing the previous hard-copy edition with a completely open access, continuously updated publication. No other database or resource exists that provides such a comprehensive, fully annotated compendium of information on virus taxa and taxonomy.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                peerj
                peerj
                PeerJ
                PeerJ Inc. (San Diego, USA )
                2167-8359
                12 December 2018
                2018
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University of North Queensland , Townsville, QLD, Australia
                [2 ]College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University of North Queensland , Townsville, QLD, Australia
                [3 ]Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne , Melbourne, Australia
                6083
                10.7717/peerj.6083
                6295156
                ©2018 Wirth et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                Funding
                The authors received no funding for this work.
                Categories
                Veterinary Medicine
                Virology

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