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      Generation of Kidney Transcriptomes Using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression

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          Abstract

          Chronic renal disease initiation and progression remain incompletely understood. Genomewide expression monitoring should clarify the mechanisms which cause progressive renal disease by determining how clusters of genes coordinately change their activity. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a technique of expression profiling which permits simultaneous and quantitative analysis of 9- to 13-bp sequence tags that correspond to unique mRNAs. Key principles of the technique are use of PCR in a manner to minimize distortion and serial concatenation of tags which facilitates sequencing and permits identification of many expressed genes in a single cDNA molecule. Tags are extracted from many concatenated sequences, counted using software, and identified by comparison with existing gene databases. In aggregate, gene expression profiles generated from a tag library comprise a transcriptome which represents a comprehensive and quantitative profile of genes expressed at the time of analysis. These global snapshots of gene expression patterns can better define basic cell biology and provide insights into disease pathogenesis by simultaneously determining the net consequences of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on expression of thousands of genes. Rather than applying a priori assumptions (i.e., hypothesis testing), transcriptome analysis is hypothesis generating and requires no prior knowledge of gene expression. SAGE kidney transcriptomes, from normal animals and animals with progressive kidney disease, are being produced and can be analyzed for novel pathogenetic mechanisms. The use of SAGE and other genomic and proteomic tools should result in a better understanding of kidney disease pathogenesis and in identification of new therapeutic targets.

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          Most cited references 13

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          SAGEmap: a public gene expression resource.

          We have constructed a public gene expression data repository and online data access and analysis, WWW and FTP sites for serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) data. The WWW and FTP components of this resource, SAGEmap, are located at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/sage and ftp://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/sage, respectively. We herein describe SAGE data submission procedures, the construction and characteristics of SAGE tags to gene assignments, the derivation and use of a novel statistical test designed specifically for differential-type analyses of SAGE data, and the organization and use of this resource.
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            Gene expression profiles of laser-captured adjacent neuronal subtypes.

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              Use of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technology.

              Serial analysis of gene expression, or SAGE, is an experimental technique designed to gain a direct and quantitative measure of gene expression. The SAGE method is based on the isolation of unique sequence tags (9-10 bp in length) from individual mRNAs and concatenation of tags serially into long DNA molecules for a lump-sum sequencing. The SAGE method can be applied to the studies exploring virtually any kinds of biological phenomena in which the changes in cellular transcription are responsible. SAGE is a highly competent technology that can not only give a global gene expression profile of a particular type of cell or tissue, but also help us identify a set of specific genes to the cellular conditions by comparing the profiles constructed for a pair of cells that are kept at different conditions. In this review, we present an outline of the original method, several studies achieved by using the method as a major strategic tool, technological difficulties and intrinsic problems that emerged, and improvements and modifications of the method to cope with these drawbacks. We then present our modified SAGE procedure that generates longer sequence tags (14 bp) rather in detail, and the profile (80K profile) derived from HeLa cells that is composed of 80000 tags obtained from a single library. In addition, a series of smaller profiles (2, 4, 10, 20 and 40K) was made by dividing the 80K profile. When we compared these smaller profiles with respect to tag counts for a number of genes, it became apparent that counts of most gene tags increase stably and constantly as the size of profiles increase, while several genes do not. This may be another problem we have to keep in mind, when the profiles are compared for the identification of 'specific genes'.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7383-2
                978-3-318-00822-7
                1660-2129
                2002
                2002
                05 April 2002
                : 10
                : 2
                : 82-92
                Affiliations
                Departments of aMedicine, bEpidemiology and Biostatistics, and cPhysiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Rammelkamp Center for Education and Research, MetroHealth Medical Center Campus, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
                Article
                49903 Exp Nephrol 2002;10:82–92
                10.1159/000049903
                11937755
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 44, Pages: 11
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/49903
                Categories
                Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Kidney transcriptomes, SAGE, Genomic/proteomic tools

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