Introduction: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the most widely used indicator of kidney function in patients with renal disease, although it does not invariably reflect functional status after renal injury. The concept of renal functional reserve (RFR) as the ability of the kidney to increase GFR following a protein load was introduced in the 1980s. In this study we evaluated the RFR test in 26 children who had developed hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) at least 2 years before the first evaluation, then 8 years later. At the beginning of the study they had no signs of proteinuria, hypertension or renal insufficiency. RFR was also evaluated in 15 healthy control children. Methods: Proteinuria and creatinine in serum and urine were tested. Functional reserve index (FRI) was defined in order to evaluate RFR. Patients with FRI level >1.36 were considered as responders (R) and with FRI <1.36 as non-responders (NR). Results: R and NR groups failed to show any significant differences when basal creatinine clearance (C<sub>Cr</sub>) was evaluated. The NR group presented a significant low initial FRI that persisted unchanged at the end of the study. These patients developed proteinuria and a renal protector treatment with protein restriction was indicated. Although the proteinuria diminished, it remained within pathological range. The lack of RFR response in the NR group was significantly related to the presence of oliguria lasting longer than 8 days during the acute phase of disease. Conclusions: Those patients with a previous history of HUS with normal basal C<sub>Cr</sub> should be evaluated by the RFR test to detect those at risk of developing glomerular hyperfiltration.