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      Influenza A virus transmission bottlenecks are defined by infection route and recipient host.

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          Abstract

          Despite its global relevance, our understanding of how influenza A virus transmission impacts the overall population dynamics of this RNA virus remains incomplete. To define this dynamic, we inserted neutral barcodes into the influenza A virus genome to generate a population of viruses that can be individually tracked during transmission events. We find that physiological bottlenecks differ dramatically based on the infection route and level of adaptation required for efficient replication. Strong genetic pressures are responsible for bottlenecks during adaptation across different host species, whereas transmission between susceptible hosts results in bottlenecks that are not genetically driven and occur at the level of the recipient. Additionally, the infection route significantly influences the bottleneck stringency, with aerosol transmission imposing greater selection than direct contact. These transmission constraints have implications in understanding the global migration of virus populations and provide a clearer perspective on the emergence of pandemic strains.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Cell Host Microbe
          Cell host & microbe
          1934-6069
          1931-3128
          Nov 12 2014
          : 16
          : 5
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.
          [2 ] The Laboratory of Biophysics, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA.
          [3 ] Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.
          [4 ] Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.
          [5 ] Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.
          [6 ] Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address: benjamin.tenoever@mssm.edu.
          Article
          S1931-3128(14)00353-9 NIHMS631956
          10.1016/j.chom.2014.09.020
          25456074
          Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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