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      The impact of intravenous dexamethasone on the efficacy and duration of analgesia of paravertebral block in breast cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          The study aimed at the evaluation of the impact of intravenous (IV) dexamethasone on efficacy and duration of analgesia of paravertebral block (PVB) in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy (MRM).

          Patients and methods

          This randomized, double-blind controlled trial included 50 patients with breast cancer scheduled for unilateral MRM. Ultrasound-guided PVB was performed in out-of-plane technique. The technique was repeated at each segment from C7 to T6. The participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group BD (n=25) received IV 8 mg dexamethasone diluted with 8 mL of normal saline to reach 10 mL solution, while Group B received IV 10 mL normal saline. Top-up local infiltration analgesia into the surgical field was performed by the surgeon if needed using lidocaine 1% intraoperatively. Propofol infusion of 50–100 µg/kg/min was maintained throughout the surgery. The time to administration of the first postoperative analgesic dose, pain intensity as visual analog scale (VAS) score, number of patients who required rescue morphine analgesia, total morphine consumption, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) impact scale, and the overall satisfaction of patients with pain management were measured.

          Results

          Fifty patients were randomized and analyzed. The time to first rescue analgesic dose was significantly longer in Group DB ( P<0.001). The VAS scores were significantly lower in Group DB compared to Group B up to 12 hours postoperatively. Morphine consumption was lower in Group DB compared to Group B. PONV Impact Scale score was significantly higher in Group B.

          Conclusion

          Systemic dexamethasone increased the efficacy and duration of the single-shot multilevel PVB in breast cancer surgery.

          Trial registration

          ISRCTN registry, study ID: ISRCTN15920148

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          Most cited references 20

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          Can anesthetic technique for primary breast cancer surgery affect recurrence or metastasis?

          Regional anesthesia is known to prevent or attenuate the surgical stress response; therefore, inhibiting surgical stress by paravertebral anesthesia might attenuate perioperative factors that enhance tumor growth and spread. The authors hypothesized that breast cancer patients undergoing surgery with paravertebral anesthesia and analgesia combined with general anesthesia have a lower incidence of cancer recurrence or metastases than patients undergoing surgery with general anesthesia and patient-controlled morphine analgesia. In this retrospective study, the authors examined the medical records of 129 consecutive patients undergoing mastectomy and axillary clearance for breast cancer between September 2001 and December 2002. Fifty patients had surgery with paravertebral anesthesia and analgesia combined with general anesthesia, and 79 patients had general anesthesia combined with postoperative morphine analgesia. The follow-up time was 32 +/- 5 months (mean +/- SD). There were no significant differences in patients or surgical details, tumor presentation, or prognostic factors. Recurrence- and metastasis-free survival was 94% (95% confidence interval, 87-100%) and 82% (74-91%) at 24 months and 94% (87-100%) and 77% (68-87%) at 36 months in the paravertebral and general anesthesia patients, respectively (P = 0.012). This retrospective analysis suggests that paravertebral anesthesia and analgesia for breast cancer surgery reduces the risk of recurrence or metastasis during the initial years of follow-up. Prospective trials evaluating the effects of regional analgesia and morphine sparing on cancer recurrence seem warranted.
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            Dexamethasone added to lidocaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus blockade.

            Different additives have been used to prolong regional blockade. We designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of axillary brachial plexus block. Sixty patients scheduled for elective hand and forearm surgery under axillary brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive either 34 mL lidocaine 1.5% with 2 mL of isotonic saline chloride (control group, n = 30) or 34 mL lidocaine 1.5% with 2 mL of dexamethasone (8 mg) (dexamethasone group, n = 30). Neither epinephrine nor bicarbonate was added to the treatment mixture. We used a nerve stimulator and multiple stimulations technique in all of the patients. After performance of the block, sensory and motor blockade of radial, median, musculocutaneous, and ulnar nerves were recorded at 5, 15, and 30 min. The onset time of the sensory and motor blockade was defined as the time between last injection and the total abolition of the pinprick response and complete paralysis. The duration of sensory and motor blocks were considered as the time interval between the administration of the local anesthetic and the first postoperative pain and complete recovery of motor functions. Sixteen patients were excluded because of unsuccessful blockade. The duration of surgery and the onset times of sensory and motor block were similar in the two groups. The duration of sensory (242 +/- 76 versus 98 +/- 33 min) and motor (310 +/- 81 versus 130 +/- 31 min) blockade were significantly longer in the dexamethasone than in the control group (P < 0.01). We conclude that the addition of dexamethasone to lidocaine 1.5% solution in axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade.
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              Thoracic paravertebral block for breast surgery.

              Cosmetic and reconstructive breast augmentation is a frequently performed surgical procedure. Despite advances in medical treatment, surgical intervention is often associated with postoperative pain, nausea, and vomiting. Paravertebral nerve block (PVB) has the potential to offer long-lasting pain relief and fewer postoperative side effects when used for breast surgery. We compared thoracic PVB with general anesthesia for cosmetic breast surgery in a single-blinded, prospective, randomized study of 60 women scheduled for unilateral or bilateral breast augmentation or reconstruction. Patients were assigned (n = 30 per group) to receive a standardized general anesthetic (GA) or thoracic PVB (levels T1-7). Procedural data were collected, as well as verbal and visual analog pain and nausea scores. Verbal postoperative pain scores were significantly lower in the PVB group at 30 min (P = 0.0005), 1 h (P = 0.0001), and 24 h (P = 0.04) when compared with GA. Nausea was less severe in the PVB group at 24 h (P = 0.04), but not at 30 min or 1 h. We conclude that PVB is an alternative technique for cosmetic breast surgery that may offer superior pain relief and decreased nausea to GA alone. Paravertebral nerve block has the potential to offer long-lasting pain relief and few postoperative side effects when used for breast surgery. We demonstrated that paravertebral nerve block, when compared with general anesthesia, is an alternative technique for breast surgery that may offer pain relief superior to general anesthesia alone.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2019
                19 December 2018
                : 12
                : 61-67
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, mail@ 123456mcs-center.com
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ahmed H Bakeer, Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, 13 Mohamed Shokry Street, Agouza 12411, Giza, Egypt, Tel +20 23 336 0906, Email mail@ 123456mcs-center.com
                Article
                jpr-12-061
                10.2147/JPR.S181788
                6305158
                © 2019 Bakeer et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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