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      Factors associated with the self-perceived ability of nursing staff to remain working until retirement: a questionnaire survey


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          It is important to learn how employers in European countries can prevent nursing staff from changing occupation or taking early retirement in order to counteract expected nursing shortages. However, to date research on nursing staff’s ability to remain working until retirement age has been limited. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the associations between different job and organisational characteristics, job satisfaction, occupational commitment and the self-perceived ability to continue working in the current line of work until the official retirement age.


          The questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study included 730 nursing staff members employed in Dutch hospitals, nursing homes, organisations for psychiatric care, homes for the elderly, care organisations for disabled people and home care organisations (mean age: 48; 89 % female). Linear and logistic regression analyses and mediation analyses were applied to test hypothesised associations.


          Reducing work pressure and increasing appreciation by senior management in particular have positive consequences for nursing staff’s self-perceived ability to continue working until the official retirement age. The job and organisational characteristics of autonomy, work pressure, supportive leadership, educational opportunities, communication within the organisation and appreciation of nursing staff by senior management together have substantial impact on nursing staff’s job satisfaction. Job satisfaction in turn is related to the self-perceived ability to continue working until the retirement age. However, job satisfaction mainly summarises the joint effect of job and organisational characteristics and has no supplementary effect on the self-perceived ability to continue working.


          Employers should primarily focus on work pressure and the appreciation of nursing staff by senior management in order to retain nursing staff even as they get older.

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          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12913-015-1006-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references32

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          Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: a systematic review.

          Numerous policy and research reports call for leadership to build quality work environments, implement new models of care, and bring health and wellbeing to an exhausted and stretched nursing workforce. Rarely do they indicate how leadership should be enacted, or examine whether some forms of leadership may lead to negative outcomes. We aimed to examine the relationships between various styles of leadership and outcomes for the nursing workforce and their work environments. The search strategy of this multidisciplinary systematic review included 10 electronic databases. Published, quantitative studies that examined leadership behaviours and outcomes for nurses and organizations were included. Quality assessments, data extractions and analysis were completed on all included studies. 34,664 titles and abstracts were screened resulting in 53 included studies. Using content analysis, 64 outcomes were grouped into five categories: staffsatisfaction with work, role and pay, staff relationships with work, staff health and wellbeing, work environment factors, and productivity and effectiveness. Distinctive patterns between relational and task focused leadership styles and their outcomes for nurses and their work environments emerged from our analysis. For example, 24 studies reported that leadership styles focused on people and relationships (transformational, resonant, supportive, and consideration) were associated with higher nurse job satisfaction, whereas 10 studies found that leadership styles focused on tasks (dissonant, instrumental and management by exception) were associated with lower nurse job satisfaction. Similar trends were found for each category of outcomes. Our results document evidence of various forms of leadership and their differential effects on the nursing workforce and work environments. Leadership focused on task completion alone is not sufficient to achieve optimum outcomes for the nursing workforce. Efforts by organizations and individuals to encourage and develop transformational and relational leadership are needed to enhance nurse satisfaction, recruitment, retention, and healthy work environments, particularly in this current and worsening nursing shortage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            A meta-analysis of studies of nurses' job satisfaction.

            Although several variables have been correlated with nursing job satisfaction, the findings are not uniform across studies. Three commonly noted variables from the nursing literature are: autonomy, job stress, and nurse-physician collaboration. This meta-analysis examined the strength of the relationships between job satisfaction and autonomy, job stress, and nurse-physician collaboration among registered nurses working in staff positions. A meta-analysis of 31 studies representing a total of 14,567 subjects was performed. Job satisfaction was most strongly correlated with job stress (ES = -.43), followed by nurse-physician collaboration (ES = .37), and autonomy (ES = .30). These findings have implications for the importance of improving the work environment to increase nurses' job satisfaction.
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              A meta-analytic review of occupational commitment: relations with person- and work-related variables.

              Relations between occupational commitment (OC) and several person- and work-related variables were examined meta-analytically (76 samples; across analyses, Ns ranged 746-15,774). Major findings are as follows. First, OC was positively related to job-focused constructs such as job involvement and satisfaction, suggesting that attitudes toward the job itself may be a central concern in committing to one's occupation. Second, consistent with previous work, OC and organizational commitment were positively related. This relation was found to be moderated by the compatibility of the profession and the employing organization. Third, OC was positively related to job performance and had an indirect effect on organizational turnover intention through occupational turnover intention. This latter effect suggests that understanding of organizational turnover can be enhanced by incorporating occupation-related variables into turnover models.

                Author and article information

                BMC Health Serv Res
                BMC Health Serv Res
                BMC Health Services Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                2 September 2015
                2 September 2015
                : 15
                : 356
                [ ]Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht, The Netherlands
                [ ]Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research (EMGO+), VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                © Maurits et al. 2015

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 26 January 2015
                : 17 August 2015
                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2015

                Health & Social care
                Health & Social care


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