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      Black hole accretion versus star formation rate: theory confronts observations

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          Cosmic Star Formation History

          Over the past two decades, an avalanche of data from multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic surveys has revolutionized our view of galaxy formation and evolution. Here we review the range of complementary techniques and theoretical tools that allow astronomers to map the cosmic history of star formation, heavy element production, and reionization of the Universe from the cosmic "dark ages" to the present epoch. A consistent picture is emerging, whereby the star-formation rate density peaked approximately 3.5 Gyr after the Big Bang, at z~1.9, and declined exponentially at later times, with an e-folding timescale of 3.9 Gyr. Half of the stellar mass observed today was formed before a redshift z = 1.3. About 25% formed before the peak of the cosmic star-formation rate density, and another 25% formed after z = 0.7. Less than ~1% of today's stars formed during the epoch of reionization. Under the assumption of a universal initial mass function, the global stellar mass density inferred at any epoch matches reasonably well the time integral of all the preceding star-formation activity. The comoving rates of star formation and central black hole accretion follow a similar rise and fall, offering evidence for co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. The rise of the mean metallicity of the Universe to about 0.001 solar by z = 6, one Gyr after the Big Bang, appears to have been accompanied by the production of fewer than ten hydrogen Lyman-continuum photons per baryon, a rather tight budget for cosmological reionization.
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            The reversal of the star formation-density relation in the distant universe

            We study the relationship between the local environment of galaxies and their star formation rate (SFR) in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, GOODS, at z~1, from ultradeep imaging at 24 microns with the MIPS camera onboard Spitzer. We show that the star formation-density relation observed locally was reversed at z~1: the average SFR of an individual galaxy increased with local galaxy density when the universe was less than half its present age. Hierarchical galaxy formation models (simulated lightcones from the Millennium model) predicted such a reversal to occur only at only at earlier epochs (z>2) and at a lower level. We present a remarkable structure at z~1.016, containing X-ray traced galaxy concentrations, which will eventually merge into a Virgo-like cluster. This structure illustrates how the individual SFR of galaxies increases with density at the ~1-2 Mpc scale. The SFR of z~1 galaxies is found to correlate with stellar mass suggesting that mass plays a role in the observed star formation-density trend. However the specific SFR (=SFR/M*) decreases with stellar mass while it increases with galaxy density, which implies that the environment does directly affect the star formation activity of galaxies. Major mergers do not appear to be the unique or even major cause for this effect since nearly half (46%) of the luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) at z~1 present the HST-ACS morphology of spirals, while only a third present a clear signature of major mergers. The remaining galaxies are divided into compact (9%) and irregular (14%) galaxies. Moreover, the specific SFR of major mergers is only marginally stronger than that of spirals. Reproducing the SFR-density relation at z ~ 1 is a new challenge for models, requiring a correct balance between mergers and in-situ star formation at early epochs.
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              The Relation between Black Hole Mass, Bulge Mass, and Near-Infrared Luminosity

              We present new accurate near-infrared (NIR) spheroid (bulge) structural parameters obtained by two-dimensional image analysis for all galaxies with a direct black hole (BH) mass determination. As expected, NIR bulge luminosities Lbul and BH masses are tightly correlated, and if we consider only those galaxies with secure BH mass measurement and accurate Lbul (27 objects), the spread of MBH-Lbul is similar to MBH-sigma, where sigma is the effective stellar velocity dispersion. We find an intrinsic rms scatter of ~0.3 dex in log MBH. By combining the bulge effective radii R_e measured in our analysis with sigma, we find a tight linear correlation (rms ~ 0.25 dex) between MBH and the virial bulge mass (propto R_e sigma^2), with ~ 0.002. A partial correlation analysis shows that MBH depends on both sigma and R_e, and that both variables are necessary to drive the correlations between MBH and other bulge properties.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1745-3933
                1745-3925
                September 11 2015
                September 01 2015
                June 16 2015
                September 11 2015
                September 01 2015
                June 16 2015
                : 452
                : 1
                : L6-L10
                Article
                10.1093/mnrasl/slv078
                b98d6cd9-577d-4580-b696-0329a9fb6985
                © 2015
                History

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