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      Surface Protein Dispersin of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Binds Plasminogen That Is Converted Into Active Plasmin

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          Dispersin is a 10.2 kDa-immunogenic protein secreted by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC). In the prototypical EAEC strain 042, dispersin is non-covalently bound to the outer membrane, assisting dispersion across the intestinal mucosa by overcoming electrostatic attraction between the AAF/II fimbriae and the bacterial surface. Also, dispersin facilitates penetration of the intestinal mucus layer. Initially characterized in EAEC, dispersin has been detected in other E. coli pathotypes, including those isolated from extraintestinal sites. In this study we investigated the binding capacity of purified dispersin to extracellular matrix (ECM), since dispersin is exposed on the bacterial surface and is involved in intestinal colonization. Binding to plasminogen was also investigated due to the presence of conserved carboxy-terminal lysine residues in dispersin sequences, which are involved in plasminogen binding in several bacterial proteins. Moreover, some E. coli components can interact with this host protease, as well as with tissue plasminogen activator, leading to plasmin production. Recombinant dispersin was produced and used in binding assays with ECM molecules and coagulation cascade compounds. Purified dispersin bound specifically to laminin and plasminogen. Interaction with plasminogen occurred in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. In the presence of plasminogen activator, bound plasminogen was converted into plasmin, its active form, leading to fibrinogen and vitronectin cleavage. A collection of E. coli strains isolated from human bacteremia was screened for the presence of aap, the dispersin-encoding gene. Eight aap-positive strains were detected and dispersin production could be observed in four of them. Our data describe new attributes for dispersin and points out to possible roles in mechanisms of tissue adhesion and dissemination, considering the binding capacity to laminin, and the generation of dispersin-bound plasmin(ogen), which may facilitate E. coli spread from the colonization site to other tissues and organs. The cleavage of fibrinogen in the bloodstream, may also contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis caused by dispersin-producing E. coli.

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          Over-production of proteins in Escherichia coli: mutant hosts that allow synthesis of some membrane proteins and globular proteins at high levels.

          We have investigated the over-production of seven membrane proteins in an Escherichia coli-bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase expression system. In all seven cases, when expression of the target membrane protein was induced, most of the BL21(DE3) host cells died. Similar effects were also observed with expression vectors for ten globular proteins. Therefore, protein over-production in this expression system is either limited or prevented by bacterial cell death. From the few survivors of BL21(DE3) expressing the oxoglutarate-malate carrier protein from mitochondrial membranes, a mutant host C41(DE3) was selected that grew to high saturation cell density, and produced the protein as inclusion bodies at an elevated level without toxic effect. Some proteins that were expressed poorly in BL21(DE3), and others where the toxicity of the expression plasmids prevented transformation into this host, were also over-produced successfully in C41(DE3). The examples include globular proteins as well as membrane proteins, and therefore, strain C41(DE3) is generally superior to BL21(DE3) as a host for protein over-expression. However, the toxicity of over-expression of some of the membrane proteins persisted partially in strain C41(DE3). Therefore, a double mutant host C43(DE3) was selected from C41(DE3) cells containing the expression plasmid for subunit b of bacterial F-ATPase. In strain C43(DE3), both subunits b and c of the F-ATPase, an alanine-H(+) symporter, and the ADP/ATP and the phosphate carriers from mitochondria were all over-produced. The transcription of the gene for the OGCP and subunit b was lower in C41(DE3) and C43(DE3), respectively, than in BL21(DE3). In C43(DE3), the onset of transcription of the gene for subunit b was delayed after induction, and the over-produced protein was incorporated into the membrane. The procedure used for selection of C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) could be employed to tailor expression hosts in order to overcome other toxic effects associated with over-expression.
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            Laminins are cell adhesion molecules that comprise a family of glycoproteins found predominantly in basement membranes, which are the thin sheets of extracellular matrix that underlie epithelial and endothelial cells and surround muscle cells, Schwann cells, and fat cells. Many laminins self-assemble to form networks that remain in close association with cells through interactions with cell surface receptors. Laminins are vital for many physiological functions. They are essential for early embryonic development and organogenesis and have crucial functions in several tissues including muscle, nerve, skin, kidney, lung, and the vasculature. A great wealth of data on laminins is available, and an in-depth description is not attempted here. In this review, I will instead provide a snapshot of laminin structure, tissue distribution, and interactions with other matrix molecules and receptors and briefly describe laminin mutations in mice and humans. Several illuminating and timely reviews are cited that can be consulted for references to original articles and more detailed information concerning laminins.
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              Patterns of adherence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells.

              A total of 516 Escherichia coli strains randomly isolated from coprocultures of 154 Chilean children with diarrhea and 66 controls were examined with DNA probes and tested for adherence to HEp-2 cells. Three adherence patterns were distinguished, localized, true diffuse and "aggregative." Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) were detected by EPEC adherence factor probe among 86 of the 372 isolates (23%) from patients with diarrhea vs. 14 of 144 (10%) strains from controls (P less than 0.0002). Of 95 strains that manifested localized adherence, 97% were EPEC adherence factor probe-positive; thus the HEp-2 assay may serve as an alternative to the probe in identifying EPEC adherence factor-positive EPEC. True diffuse adherence was not associated with diarrhea. In contrast the aggregative pattern appears to signify a new, distinct class of diarrheagenic E. coli (enteroadherent-aggregative E. coli). The aggregative pattern was found in only 3 of 27 enterotoxigenic, 0 of 4 enteroinvasive, 0 of 2 enterohemorrhagic and 2 of 86 EPEC strains but in 84 of 253 probe-negative strains (P less than 0.00001) from patients with diarrhea; in comparison only 20 of 134 probe-negative strains from controls were aggregative E. coli (P less than 0.00001 vs. probe-negative strains from diarrhea patients).

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                18 June 2020
                : 11
                1Laboratory of Bacteriology, Butantan Institute , São Paulo, Brazil
                2Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Butantan Institute , São Paulo, Brazil
                3Laboratory of Applied Toxinology – Center of Toxins, Immune-Response and Cell Signaling (CeTICS), Butantan Institute , São Paulo, Brazil
                4Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Federal University of São Paulo , São Paulo, Brazil
                Author notes

                Edited by: Alain Pierre Gobert, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, United States

                Reviewed by: Nadia Boisen, Statens Serum Institut (SSI), Denmark; Fernando Navarro-Garcia, Instituto Politécnico Nacional de México (CINVESTAV), Mexico

                *Correspondence: Angela S. Barbosa, angela.barbosa@ 123456butantan.gov.br

                Present address: Ludmila B. Silva, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Brazil

                This article was submitted to Infectious Diseases, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2020 Moraes, Longo, Silva, Pimenta, Carvalho, Morone, da Rós, Serrano, Santos, Piazza, Barbosa and Elias.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 101, Pages: 18, Words: 0
                Funded by: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico 10.13039/501100003593
                Award ID: 72097/2009-1
                Funded by: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo 10.13039/501100001807
                Award ID: 2018/06610-9
                Funded by: Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos 10.13039/501100004809
                Award ID: 01.09.0278.04
                Award ID: 01.12.0450.03
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology

                ecm, eaec, dispersin, plasminogen, plasmin


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