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      Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, Biological Activities, and Health-Promoting Effects of the Genus Bulbophyllum


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          The genus Bulbophyllum is of scientific interest due to the phytochemical components and diverse biological activities found across species of the genus. Most Bulbophyllum species are epiphytic and located in habitats that range from subtropical dry forests to wet montane cloud forests. In many cultures, the genus Bulbophyllum has a religious, protective, ornamenting, cosmetic, and medicinal role. Detailed investigations into the molecular pharmacological mechanisms and numerous biological effects of Bulbophyllum spp. remain ambiguous. The review focuses on an in-depth discussion of studies containing data on phytochemistry and preclinical pharmacology. Thus, the purpose of this review was to summarize the therapeutic potential of Bulbophyllum spp. biocompounds. Data were collected from several scientific databases such as PubMed and ScienceDirect, other professional websites, and traditional medicine books to obtain the necessary information. Evidence from pharmacological studies has shown that various phytoconstituents in some Bulbophyllum species have different biological health-promoting activities such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective. No toxicological effects have been reported to date. Future clinical trials are needed for the clinical confirmation of biological activities proven in preclinical studies. Although orchid species are cultivated for ornamental purposes and have a wide traditional use, the novelty of this review is a summary of biological actions from preclinical studies, thus supporting ethnopharmacological data.

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          Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

          There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.
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            Best practice in research – Overcoming common challenges in phytopharmacological research

            The pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of bioactive preparations derived from natural sources has become a flourishing field of research. However, researching complex extracts and natural products faces numerous challenges. More broadly in recent years the critique of pharmacological research, and specifically its design, the methods used and reporting has intensified.
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              An updated classification of Orchidaceae


                Author and article information

                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                7 March 2022
                7 March 2022
                : 2022
                : 6727609
                1Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Azuay, Cuenca, Ecuador
                2Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Arturo Prat, Avda. Arturo Prat 2120, Iquique 1110939, Chile
                3Laboratory of Human Pathologies Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, and Genomic Center of Human Pathologies, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University in Rabat, Rabat, Morocco
                4Laboratory of Pharmacology, National Agency of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Taounate 34025, Morocco
                5Laboratory of Histology, Embryology, and Cytogenetic, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University in Rabat, Rabat, Morocco
                6Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
                7Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh
                8Department of Natural Products Research, Dr. Koirala Research Institute for Biotechnology and Biodiversity, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
                9Laboratory of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau SAR 999078, China
                10Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
                11Medicine Standardization Department of Vitebsk State Medical University, Vitebsk, Belarus
                12Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Santo Tomas, Santiago, Chile
                13Center of Molecular Biology and Pharmacogenetics, Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco 4811230, Chile
                14Division of Crop Physiology, Biochemistry and Post-Harvest Technology, ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
                15Chemical and Biochemical Processing Division, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai 400019, India
                16Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Lu sa Mota da Silva

                Author information
                Copyright © 2022 Javad Sharifi-Rad et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 12 October 2021
                : 7 February 2022
                Review Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                Complementary & Alternative medicine


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