To assess the frequency of adverse outcomes for women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria using data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study.
This is a secondary analysis from the North American HAPO study centers. Glucose measurements from a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were used to group participants into three nonoverlapping categories: GDM based on Carpenter-Coustan (CC) criteria (also GDM based on IADPSG criteria), GDM diagnosed based on IADPSG criteria but not CC criteria, and no GDM. Newborn outcomes included birth weight, cord C-peptide, and newborn percentage fat above the 90th percentile; maternal outcomes included primary cesarean delivery and preeclampsia. Outcome frequencies were compared using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for predefined covariates.
Among 25,505 HAPO study participants, 6,159 blinded participants from North American centers were included. Of these, 81% had normal glucose testing, 4.2% had GDM based on CC criteria, and 14.3% had GDM based on IADPSG criteria but not CC criteria. Compared with women with no GDM, those diagnosed with GDM based on IADPSG criteria had adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) for birth weight, cord C-peptide, and newborn percentage fat above the 90th percentile, as well as primary cesarean delivery and preeclampsia, of 1.87 (1.50–2.34), 2.00 (1.54–2.58), 1.73 (1.35–2.23), 1.31 (1.07–1.60), and 1.73 (1.32–2.27), respectively.