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      Calculation of beta induced Bremsstrahlung exposure from therapeutic radionuclide 198Au in tissues, DNA and RNA Translated title: Berechnung der Exposition von Gewebe, DNA und RNA durch Beta-induzierte Bremsstrahlung von 198Au als therapeutisches Radionuklid


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          Gold-198 (β max=0.96MeV (98.6%), γ max=0.412MeV (95.5%) and T 1/2=2.7 days) is a well-known therapeutic beta emitter in the field of nuclear medicine, and is being used for the treatment of many different cancers. In the present study, the Bremsstrahlung exposure induced by 198Au in different human tissues, DNA and RNA has been calculated. The specific Bremsstrahlung constant (Γ Br), Probability of energy loss by beta during Bremsstrahlung emission (P Br) and Bremsstrahlung activity (A release) Br were estimated. We strongly recommend these parameters should be considered in absorbed dose calculations of radionuclide therapy via 198Au.


          Gold-198 (β max=0.96 MeV (98.6%), γ max=0.412 MeV (95.5%) and T 1/2=2.7 Tage) ist ein bekannter therapeutischer Beta-Emitter in der Nuklearmedizin und wird zur Behandlung verschiedener Krebserkrankungen verwendet. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde die Exposition von verschiedenen menschlichen Geweben, DNA und RNA durch 198Au Bremsstrahlung berechnet. Die spezifische Bremsstrahlungskonstante (Γ Br), die Wahrscheinlichkeit des Energieverlustes durch Betastrahlung während der Emission von Bremsstrahlung (P Br) und die Bremsstrahlungsaktivität (A release) Br wurden bestimmt. Es wird dringend empfohlen diese Parameter bei der Berechnung der Energiedosis in der Radionuklidtherapie mit 198Au zu berücksichtigen.

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          Fabrication of gold nanoparticles for targeted therapy in pancreatic cancer.

          The targeted delivery of a drug should result in enhanced therapeutic efficacy with low to minimal side effects. This is a widely accepted concept, but limited in application due to lack of available technologies and process of validation. Biomedical nanotechnology can play an important role in this respect. Biomedical nanotechnology is a burgeoning field with myriads of opportunities and possibilities for advancing medical science and disease treatment. Cancer nanotechnology (1-100 nm size range) is expected to change the very foundations of cancer treatment, diagnosis and detection. Nanomaterials, especially gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have unique physico-chemical properties, such as ultra small size, large surface area to mass ratio, and high surface reactivity, presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands, biocompatibility and ease of surface functionalization. In this review, we will discuss how the unique physico-chemical properties of gold nanoparticles may be utilized for targeted drug delivery in pancreatic cancer leading to increased efficacy of traditional chemotherapeutics. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Fabrication of {198Au0} radioactive composite nanodevices and their use for nanobrachytherapy.

            We describe the simple fabrication of poly({198Au}) radioactive gold-dendrimer composite nanodevices in distinct sizes (diameter between 10 nm and 29 nm) for targeted radiopharmaceutical dose delivery to tumors in vivo. Irradiation of aqueous solutions of 197Au containing poly(amidoamine) dendrimer tetrachloroaurate salts or {197Au0} gold-dendrimer nanocomposites in a nuclear reactor resulted in the formation of positively charged and soluble poly{198Au0} radioactive composite nanodevices (CNDs). A mouse melanoma tumor model was used to test whether the poly{198Au0} CNDs can deliver a therapeutic dose. A single intratumoral injection of poly{198Au0}(d=22nm) CNDs in phosphate-buffered saline delivering a dose of 74 muCi resulted after 8 days in a statistically significant 45% reduction in tumor volume, when compared with untreated groups and those injected with the "cold" nanodevice. No clinical toxicity was observed during the experiments. This study provides the first proof of principle that radioactive CNDs can deliver therapeutic doses to tumors.
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              Scope of nanotechnology-based radiation therapy and thermotherapy methods in cancer treatment.

              The main aim of nanomedicine is to revolutionize the health care system and find effective approaches to fighting fatal diseases. Therapeutic beams, which are employed in radiation therapy, do not discriminate between normal and cancerous cells and must rely on targeting the radiation beams to specific cells. Interestingly, the application of nanoscale particles in radiation therapy has aimed to improve outcomes in radiation therapy by increasing toxicity in tumors and reducing it in normal tissues. This review focuses on approaches to nanotechnology-based cancer radiation therapy methods such as radionuclide therapy, photodynamic therapy, and neutron capture therapy. Moreover, we have investigated nanotechnology-based thermotherapy methods, including hyperthermia and thermoablation, as non-ionizing modalities of treatment using thermal radiation. The results strongly demonstrate that nanotechnology-based cancer radiation therapy and thermotherapy methods hold substantial potential to improve the efficacy of anticancer radiation and thermotherapy modalities.

                Author and article information

                Carl Hanser Verlag
                : 77
                : 5
                : 385-389
                1 Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box: 1477893855 Tehran, Iran
                2 Nuclear fuel cycle school, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, End of North Karegar Ave. P.O. Box: 1439951113, Tehran, Iran
                3 Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 31485/498, Karaj, Iran
                4 Young Researchers Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
                © 2012, Carl Hanser Verlag, München
                : 21 December 2011
                Page count
                References: 28, Pages: 5
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.hanser-elibrary.com/loi/kt
                Technical Contributions/Fachbeiträge

                Materials technology,Materials for energy,Nuclear physics
                Materials technology, Materials for energy, Nuclear physics


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