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      Entamoeba histolytica-secreted cysteine proteases induce IL-8 production in human mast cells via a PAR2-independent mechanism

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          Entamoeba histolytica is an extracellular tissue parasite causing colitis and occasional liver abscess in humans. E. histolytica-derived secretory products (SPs) contain large amounts of cysteine proteases (CPs), one of the important amoebic virulence factors. Although tissue-residing mast cells play an important role in the mucosal inflammatory response to this pathogen, it is not known whether the SPs induce mast cell activation. In this study, when human mast cells (HMC-1 cells) were stimulated with SPs collected from pathogenic wild-type amoebae, interleukin IL-8 mRNA expression and production were significantly increased compared with cells incubated with medium alone. Inhibition of CP activity in the SPs with heat or the CP inhibitor E64 resulted in significant reduction of IL-8 production. Moreover, SPs obtained from inhibitors of cysteine protease (ICP)-overexpressing amoebae with low CP activity showed weaker stimulatory effects on IL-8 production than the wild-type control. Preincubation of HMC-1 cells with antibodies to human protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) did not affect the SP-induced IL-8 production. These results suggest that cysteine proteases in E. histolytica-derived secretory products stimulate mast cells to produce IL-8 via a PAR2-independent mechanism, which contributes to IL-8-mediated tissue inflammatory responses during the early phase of human amoebiasis.

          Translated abstract

          Entamoeba histolytica est un parasite extracellulaire des tissus provoquant des colites et occasionnellement des abcès du foie chez l’homme. Les produits de sécrétion dérivés d’ E. histolytica (SPs) contiennent de grandes quantités de cystéine-protéases (CPs), l’un des principaux facteurs de virulence amibiens. Bien que les mastocytes tissulaires jouent un rôle important dans la réponse inflammatoire de la muqueuse à ce pathogène, on ne sait pas si les SPs induisent l’activation des mastocytes. Dans cette étude, lorsque des mastocytes humains (cellules HMC-1) ont été stimulés avec des SPs recueillis à partir d’amibes pathogènes de type sauvage, l’expression et la production de l’interleukine IL-8 ont été significativement augmentées par rapport à des cellules incubées avec du milieu seul. L’inhibition de l’activité des CPs dans les SPs avec la chaleur ou avec E64, un inhibiteur de CP, a entraîné une réduction significative de la production d’IL-8. En outre, les SPs obtenus à partir d’amibes surexprimant l’inhibiteur de protéases à cystéine (ICP) à faible activité de CP ont montré des effets stimulants plus faibles sur la production d’IL-8 que le contrôle de type sauvage. La pré-incubation des cellules HMC-1 avec des anticorps contre le récepteur 2 activé par la protéase humaine (PAR2) n’a pas affecté la production d’IL-8 induite par SPs. Ces résultats suggèrent que les cystéine-protéases des produits de sécrétion dérivés d’ E. histolytica stimulent les mastocytes pour produire de l’IL-8 par l’intermédiaire d’un mécanisme indépendant de PAR2, ce qui contribue à la réponse inflammatoire tissulaire médiée par IL-8 au cours de la phase précoce de l’amibiase humaine.

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          Most cited references 24

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          A new medium for the axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica and other Entamoeba.

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            Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of human disease.

            Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immune responses. The function of TLRs in various human diseases has been investigated by comparison of the incidence of disease among people having different polymorphisms in genes that participate in TLR signaling. These studies have shown that TLR function affects several diseases, including sepsis, immunodeficiencies, atherosclerosis and asthma. As this body of data grows, it will provide new insights into disease pathogenesis as well as valuable information on the merits of various therapeutic options.
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              Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors: implications for regulating inflammatory and immune responses.

               A. Beg (2002)
              Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a crucial role in regulating immunity against microbial agents. Recent studies indicate that these receptors might also have an important role in regulating responses to endogenous stimuli, such as necrotic cells, heat-shock proteins and extracellular matrix breakdown products. Specifically, TLR2 and TLR4 were shown to mediate expression of inflammatory genes and trigger dendritic-cell 'maturation' by these agents. These intriguing findings suggest that the ancient family of TLRs are involved in the recognition, not only of microbes, but also of endogenous harmful stimuli. However, potential complications associated with microbial contamination of endogenous agents and the specific nature of in vivo responses induced by these agents remain to be determined.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                07 February 2014
                : 21
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2014/01 )
                [1 ] Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine Seoul 120-752 Korea
                [2 ] Department of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo Japan
                [3 ] Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science Rehovot 76100 Israel
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: myeong@ 123456yuhs.ac
                parasite130051 10.1051/parasite/2014001
                © Y.A. Lee et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 9
                Research Article


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