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      Wound repair and regeneration

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          Abstract

          The repair of wounds is one of the most complex biological processes that occur during human life. After an injury, multiple biological pathways immediately become activated and are synchronized to respond. In human adults, the wound repair process commonly leads to a non-functioning mass of fibrotic tissue known as a scar. By contrast, early in gestation, injured fetal tissues can be completely recreated, without fibrosis, in a process resembling regeneration. Some organisms, however, retain the ability to regenerate tissue throughout adult life. Knowledge gained from studying such organisms might help to unlock latent regenerative pathways in humans, which would change medical practice as much as the introduction of antibiotics did in the twentieth century.

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          Most cited references79

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          Identification of stem cells in small intestine and colon by marker gene Lgr5.

          The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. It is currently believed that four to six crypt stem cells reside at the +4 position immediately above the Paneth cells in the small intestine; colon stem cells remain undefined. Lgr5 (leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5, also known as Gpr49) was selected from a panel of intestinal Wnt target genes for its restricted crypt expression. Here, using two knock-in alleles, we reveal exclusive expression of Lgr5 in cycling columnar cells at the crypt base. In addition, Lgr5 was expressed in rare cells in several other tissues. Using an inducible Cre knock-in allele and the Rosa26-lacZ reporter strain, lineage-tracing experiments were performed in adult mice. The Lgr5-positive crypt base columnar cell generated all epithelial lineages over a 60-day period, suggesting that it represents the stem cell of the small intestine and colon. The expression pattern of Lgr5 suggests that it marks stem cells in multiple adult tissues and cancers.
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            Cutaneous wound healing.

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              Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: prevailing and evolving hypotheses about its pathogenesis and implications for therapy.

              Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and usually fatal lung disease characterized by fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix remodeling, which result in irreversible distortion of the lung's architecture. Although the pathogenetic mechanisms remain to be determined, the prevailing hypothesis holds that fibrosis is preceded and provoked by a chronic inflammatory process that injures the lung and modulates lung fibrogenesis, leading to the end-stage fibrotic scar. However, there is little evidence that inflammation is prominent in early disease, and it is unclear whether inflammation is relevant to the development of the fibrotic process. Evidence suggests that inflammation does not play a pivotal role. Inflammation is not a prominent histopathologic finding, and epithelial injury in the absence of ongoing inflammation is sufficient to stimulate the development of fibrosis. In addition, the inflammatory response to a lung fibrogenic insult is not necessarily related to the fibrotic response. Clinical measurements of inflammation fail to correlate with stage or outcome, and potent anti-inflammatory therapy does not improve outcome. This review presents a growing body of evidence suggesting that idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis involves abnormal wound healing in response to multiple, microscopic sites of ongoing alveolar epithelial injury and activation associated with the formation of patchy fibroblast-myofibroblast foci, which evolve to fibrosis. Progress in understanding the fibrogenic mechanisms in the lung is likely to yield more effective therapies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                May 15 2008
                May 14 2008
                May 15 2008
                : 453
                : 7193
                : 314-321
                Article
                10.1038/nature07039
                18480812
                b9cdfa8e-7956-4c30-8b73-a998d93e047c
                © 2008

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

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