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      Neogene and Pleistocene history of Agave lechuguilla in the Chihuahuan Desert

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          Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA.

          Six primers for the amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been designed. In order to find out whether these primers were universal, we used them in an attempt to amplify DNA from various plant species. The primers worked for most species tested including algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms. The fact that they amplify chloroplast DNA non-coding regions over a wide taxonomic range means that these primers may be used to study the population biology (in supplying markers) and evolution (inter- and probably intraspecific phylogenies) of plants.
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            The Global 200: Priority Ecoregions for Global Conservation

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              Comparative organization of chloroplast, mitochondrial and nuclear diversity in plant populations.

              Plants offer excellent models to investigate how gene flow shapes the organization of genetic diversity. Their three genomes can have different modes of transmission and will hence experience varying levels of gene flow. We have compiled studies of genetic structure based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear markers in seed plants. Based on a data set of 183 species belonging to 103 genera and 52 families, we show that the precision of estimates of genetic differentiation (G(ST)) used to infer gene flow is mostly constrained by the sampling of populations. Mode of inheritance appears to have a major effect on G(ST). Maternally inherited genomes experience considerably more subdivision (median value of 0.67) than paternally or biparentally inherited genomes (approximately 0.10). G(ST) at cpDNA and mtDNA markers covary narrowly when both genomes are maternally inherited, whereas G(ST) at paternally and biparentally inherited markers also covary positively but more loosely and G(ST) at maternally inherited markers are largely independent of values based on nuclear markers. A model-based gross estimate suggests that, at the rangewide scale, historical levels of pollen flow are generally at least an order of magnitude larger than levels of seed flow (median of the pollen-to-seed migration ratio: 17) and that pollen and seed gene flow vary independently across species. Finally, we show that measures of subdivision that take into account the degree of similarity between haplotypes (N(ST) or R(ST)) make better use of the information inherent in haplotype data than standard measures based on allele frequencies only.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biogeography
                J. Biogeogr.
                Wiley
                03050270
                February 2017
                February 2017
                August 08 2016
                : 44
                : 2
                : 322-334
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratorio de Evolución Molecular y Experimental; Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; Circuito exterior s/n anexo al Jardín Botánico Ciudad Universitaria 04510 México D.F México
                Article
                10.1111/jbi.12851
                b9ce53ac-2658-40b8-ba9e-f6259ff11278
                © 2016

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor


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